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Governments and Economies of Africa

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1 Governments and Economies of Africa

2 Governments… Republic of Kenya- Republic of South Africa-
Kenya gained its independence from British in 1963 under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta. They currently had a democratic republic with an elected president and a one house (unicameral) law making body. Republic of South Africa- Up until 1994 South Africa had an Oligarchy form of government, in which the white leaders of the Apartheid controlled Today, South Africa has a democratic government made up of two different houses the National Assembly (elected by the citizens), and the National Council of Provinces (elected by the provincial legislature of every province).

3 Government of Kenya Republic
Executive branch is the strongest and president serves a 5 year term President is the head of state and head of government. Legislative : parliament, is a unicameral body called the National Assembly, or Bunge. (224 members and 12 are appointed by president) Rights of Citizens: Suffrage 18 years of age; universal Right to participate in political process

4 Government of South Africa
Constitution ratified in 1996; splits power between the executive and legislative and judicial branches Constitution also contains a Bill of Rights for South Africans. Executive : President President elected to a five year term President is the head of government and head of state. Leader of the party with the most seats in National Assembly Legislative: bicameral parliament. 1st house called the National Assembly(400 members); 2nd house National Council of Provinces (90 officals appointed by provincial legislature).

5 Governments… Unlike the Republics of Kenya and South Africa, many countries have fallen under the leadership of dictators since their independence. For example… Sudan- Although Sudan is called the Republic of Sudan, it is run by a military dictatorship. President is Chief of state and Head of government

6 Governments… Sudan- Egypt- Has a Constitutional Democracy
Government Type: Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections in 2009 Egypt- Has a Constitutional Democracy

7 Problems with governments…
Although many countries in Africa are guided by a democratic form of government, there is still corruption and instability. Kenya, for example, has a democracy- but the citizens have very little say. Much of the decision making process is dominated by the president and his party. Like Kenya, South Africa’s government is still plagued with problems. Even with the end of the Apartheid much of South Africa’s wealth does not reach the black population causing poverty among half the population.

8 Problems with government..
Other problems include civil wars that have broken out in countries like Sudan and Nigeria- causing government instability. Sometimes government policies hold certain citizens back from succeeding. Example: Sudan- Women have limited rights and are not given proper education.

9 Economies… Nigeria- While Nigeria should be one of the wealthiest countries in Africa due to its resources, it is not. Why? Nigeria is torn apart by civil war, corrupt government, and an increase in population. Nigeria has a large supply of oil- that has brought the country money, but also corruption. Most of the money the country makes off of oil goes to the government- leaving the rest of the population in poverty.

10 Economies…. South Africa-
South Africa is the most developed country in Africa They have a mixed economy that leans heavily on the market side--currency is called the Rand. South Africa, like the U.S. relies heavily on Service Industry Service Industries- Banking, tourism, entertainment, retail, etc. Problems- South Africa’s economy is still fighting the legacy of the Apartheid- 30% of the population is unemployed- the majority of those people are black. Also crime has made it harder to attract foreign investment even with their abundant natural resources. South Africa also has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS in Africa- causing the country to spend more money on health car than anything else

11 Economies… Egypt- Egypt’s has a mixed economy, but the state or public owned businesses account for nearly 70% of Egypt's goods or services- making it more of a command econ. Their economy on tourism, natural resources (oil), and agricultural goods (cotton, wheat).

12 What is holding African countries back…
What is holding African countries back from becoming a developed nation? Famine Disease Low Literacy Rates Political instability since independence

13 Improving Economies… Southern African Development Community (SADC)
9 South African countries came together in to help financial growth The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Created in 1975 to raise the standard of living and stability in West African countries What are ways that countries in Africa can improve their economies? Investment in Human Capital (workers) Through education Better benefits Investment in Capital goods New technology New machinery

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