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The Purpose of Government To organize society for common action so that the needs of every individual can be met  Economic needs food, shelter, employment,

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Presentation on theme: "The Purpose of Government To organize society for common action so that the needs of every individual can be met  Economic needs food, shelter, employment,"— Presentation transcript:


2 The Purpose of Government To organize society for common action so that the needs of every individual can be met  Economic needs food, shelter, employment, trade  Social Needs health care, welfare, education  Legal Needs law and order, national defense

3 Government in Canada There are three levels of government in Canada yFederal This is the government of all of Canada. yProvincial Each of the Canadian provinces has its own government yMunicipal Local government at the urban or district level

4 Freedom and Equality yFreedom The belief that the rights of each individual in society are of primary importance. yEquality The belief that all individuals in a society should be treated in the same way. Governments attempt to balance freedom and equality. Political ideologies have different beliefs regarding the importance of freedom and equality.

5 The Balance of Freedom and Equality

6 The Political Spectrum I  The political spectrum is a line along which are placed the various political ideologies and political parties  This line has a centre, a left side and a right side yThe extreme ends of the line represent extreme political beliefs while the centre is associated with more moderate beliefs  The origins of the political spectrum are associated with the French Revolution

7 The Political Spectrum I

8 The Political Spectrum II –The centre of the political spectrum is associated with the democratic form of government. –The extreme ends of the line on both the right and the left are totalitarian in form.

9 Democracy zDirect democracy, where all citizens participate in government, originated with the ancient Greeks. zIn Canada, today, we practice indirect democracy through elected representatives. zIn a democracy the state exists to serve the citizen.

10 Totalitarianism zTotalitarian forms of government are found at the extreme ends of the political spectrum on both the right and the left. zThe state exercises total control in this form of government. zIn a totalitarian regime the individual exists to serve the state.

11 The Political Spectrum III

12 The Political Spectrum IV yThe political beliefs of the left side of the spectrum support economic equality and change or progress in society yThe extreme left is associated with Communism ySocialism and the Social Democratic parties are located on the left inside the circle

13 The Political Spectrum V - The Left Wing

14 Communism zKarl Marx wrote the ‘Communist Manifesto’ in which he indicated that economic equality would only be achieved after a violent revolution. zMarx believed that the working people or proletariat would take power from their capitalist masters.

15 Socialism zThe socialists, also, believe in economic equality but only if it can be achieved through the ballot box. zDemocratic socialist political parties can be found in most modern democratic states including Canada.

16 The Political Spectrum VI  Political beliefs on the right side of the line support tradition and oppose change in society.  The extreme right is associated with Fascism. yBecause the beliefs of conservatism and liberalism are democratic they are located inside the circle.

17 Fascism zFascism as a political ideology began in Italy in 1922 with the regime of Benito Mussolini. zIn Germany the National Socialist Party led by Hitler came to power in 1933. zThis was a backward looking, reactionary political philosophy which stressed militarism and racial purity.

18 The Political Spectrum VII - Centre to Right Wing

19 Liberalism and Conservatism zLiberalism is divided into classical and reform liberalism. zLiberals were believers in the progress of good men with reform liberals accepting more government intervention in the economy. zConservatives were not as optimistic about mankind but strongly supported economic freedom.

20 The Political Spectrum VIII

21 Political Parties  Political parties derive their beliefs from the basic political ideologies.  In a democracy political parties are found inside the circle at the centre of the political spectrum.  Political parties may be left or right of centre. yPolitical parties are not fixed in one location but may move left or right depending on current public opinion.

22 Political Parties in Canada zCanada has political parties at both the federal and provincial levels of government. zFederal and provincial parties may share a name but not policies. zIn large urban areas political parties may also control local government.

23 Federal Political Parties zThe following major political parties have elected members at the federal level Liberal, Progressive, Social Credit/Creditiste, Reform (later Canadian Alliance), Conservative, New Democratic Party and Bloc Quebecois

24 National Political Parties and the Political Spectrum

25 National Political Parties z The Liberal Party of Canada is reform liberal in outlook. z It moved left at the end of World War II, as voters seemed to be heading in that direction. z Pierre Elliott Trudeau took it even further to the Left in the 1960’s and 1970’s.


27 National Political Parties zThe party of the Right in Canada was traditionally the Conservative Party of Canada. zThe leadership of Brian Mulroney took the party from huge success to a huge loss in the late 1980’s.


29 National Political Parties z The near collapse of the Conservatives opened up an opportunity for a new right of center party. z The Reform Party of Canada (later renamed Canadian Alliance) filled this void -- though it had difficulty convincing people outside the West that it was more than just a party of Western alienation. z YouTube - The Death Of the Progressive Conservative Party - Et Tu MacKay?wmv YouTube - The Death Of the Progressive Conservative Party - Et Tu MacKay?wmv Preston Manning, 1st leader of the Reform Party

30 CCF/NDP zThe NDP evolved from a 1960s merger of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). The CCF was founded by JS Woodworth on the Prairies in the 1930s and led by Tommy Douglas. Grew from populist, agrarian and democratic socialist roots into a modern social-democratic party. Although the CCF was part of the Christian left and the Social Gospel movement, the NDP is secular and pluralistic. It has broadened to include concerns of the New Left, and advocates issues such as gay rights, international peace, and environmental stewardship. Canadian Labour CongressCo-operative Commonwealth Federationpopulist agrariandemocratic socialistChristian leftSocial GospelsecularNew Left

31 zThe NDP has never formed the federal government, but is the Official Opposition in the current 41st Canadian Parliament. It has also at times wielded influence during federal minority governments, The NDP also enjoyed considerable influence during the earlier minority Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau, due to being a large enough group to decide outcomes when the others are split. Provincial New Democratic Parties, technically sections of the federal party, have governed in half the provinces and a territory.41st Canadian Parliamentminority governmentsLiberalLester B. PearsonPierre Trudeauprovinces and a territory zThey currently govern the provinces of Manitoba and Nova Scotia, form the Official Opposition in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, and have sitting members in every provincial legislature except those of Quebec (where there is no provincial NDP), New Brunswick (although the New Brunswick NDP had an elected member until 2006) and Prince Edward Island. They have previously formed governments in the provinces of Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, and in the Yukon Territory. The NDP also formed the official opposition in Alberta during the 1980s.ManitobaNova ScotiaOfficial OppositionBritish Columbia SaskatchewanQuebecNew Brunswick Prince Edward IslandOntarioAlberta


33 National Political Parties zThe Reform Party was tremendously successful west of Ontario, but could not break through in the East. zThe tendency of more right-wing members to make dramatic but thoughtless public comments hurt their credibility with mainstream voters. zA premature attempt to lure the remnants of the Conservative Party resulted in a name change to The Canadian Alliance Party. But it was unsuccessful in changing anything but its name and its leader until very recently. 2nd leader, Stockwell Day -- staying afloat was easier in the Okanagan than in politics.

34 National Political Parties zAt the national level, the parties of the center-right long split the vote between them. zThe result is a series of easy wins by the national Liberal Party. zThe parties of the right talked about unity after 3 Chretien majorites; it took until December, 2003 before the Alliance (Reform) and the Progressive-Conservatives merged into the new Conservative Party of Canada. It was not until 2006 that they won a federal election, though only with a minority. By 2011, they had a majority.

35 Provincial Political Parties and the Political Spectrum

36 Political Ideologies and Parties - A Summary - zThe balance of freedom and equality helps to determine the nature of political ideology. zIt is from basic political ideologies that political parties shape their policies. zThe political spectrum allows us to understand the roots of ideology and party beliefs.

37 Summary – Ideologies and Parties zIn Canada most political parties are centrist – though they are labeled as Left or Right Wing. zFederally the Liberals dominated the late 20 th Century because of a split in the Right. The federal Liberals are Center-Left. zIn Nova Scotia, the PCs dominated the 1960s and 1980s, the Liberals in 1950s, 70s and 90s. Today, they have their first ever NDP government.

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