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Government: The Evolution of Ideologies (Political) Ideologies are abstractions. They do not really exist; what exists are real people with their individual.

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Presentation on theme: "Government: The Evolution of Ideologies (Political) Ideologies are abstractions. They do not really exist; what exists are real people with their individual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Government: The Evolution of Ideologies (Political) Ideologies are abstractions. They do not really exist; what exists are real people with their individual thoughts and organizations that adopt statements and programs.


3 Liberalism “Liberal” means “free”. “Liberalism”is a very broad, sweeping term which means different things to different people. Two types: classical liberalism reform liberalism.

4 Classical Liberals late 18 th century in western Europe economic and intellectual freedom. Humans are good creatures, capable of improving their lot in life though their own efforts.

5 Progress—the belief that social, economic, and political conditions would get better with each generation Government should not get involved in the economic and intellectual life of the community any more than necessary.

6 Reform Liberalism 19 th and 20 th century-stronger commitment to economic equality which supporters believe can be brought about by limited government intervention in the economy. Still a commitment to progress and intellectual freedom.

7 Major thinker was economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946). Government should to ensure that all citizens would have access to the basics of life: decent food, housing and employment. Reform liberalism might be considered an important focus of the modern Liberal party of Canada

8 Conservatism “Conservative” means“to save”-Keep things the same! A reaction to liberalism. Major Thinker: statesman Edmund Burke (1729-97).


10 Monarch over the elected Parliament traditional organization of society and politics should be preserved. Limited involvement in economy (laissez faire attitude) Strong commitment to intellectual equality and believe that moral issues are sometimes a matter of public not merely private, concern. Political Party: Conservatives

11 Socialism Major Thinkers: Plato, the great Greek philosopher of the fourth century B.C. Modern socialism linked to Jean-Jacques Rousseau Rousseau Plato

12 industrial revolution, manual tools vs. powerful machines (factories) community (public), not wealthy individuals or small groups of individuals, should own these industrial enterprises. progress and the capacity of innovative ideas and institutions to improve society. Difference between liberalism and socialism: liberals believed individuals could be truly free with limited government, while socialists believed government - society itself could make individuals free. In Canada, the dividing line between socialism and liberalism are represented by the NDP and the Liberal party is sometimes unclear. Building Socialism in the U.S.

13 Communism Thinkers: Karl Marx (1818-83) and Friedrich Engels (1820-95). Like the socialists, Marx had economic equality as his ideal. However, he thought that it would come about not by cooperation of groups sharing property voluntarily (socialism), but rather by violent conflict because the people who held power would not give it up voluntarily. negative effects of capitalism  the oppressors were the wealthy capitalists—the bourgeoisie—and the oppressed were the mistreated, underpaid workers—the proletariat.

14 industrialized nations of Western Europe, the proletariat would eventually rise up and destroy the capitalist system. abolition of private property, but also the disappearance of government  therefore, economic equality of all people. first communist revolution, which took place in 1917, did not occur in industrialized western Europe, but in czarist Russia, where agricultural was the principal economic activity. In modern communist countries government has not withered away, as Marx suggested; on the contrary, it intrudes into every aspect of economic and intellectual life. Socialists and communists advocate economic equality, but socialists believe it will occur through government intervention.

15 Fascism The term comes ultimately from the Latin fasces, which denotes a bundle of rods bound together around an axe. In ancient Rome, the rods and axe symbolized the government’s power to keep law and order (the rods to control and correct the people) and, if necessary, to mete out punishment and death (the axe of execution).

16 early 1920’s to the end of WWII in 1945. “Fascism” is Italian in origin, and was first used by the Italian leader Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), who headed his country’s government from 1922-1943. Individual freedoms were permitted if they contributed to the good of the nation. In Mussolini’s view, all the economic and intellectual resources of the Italian state were to be directed towards the building of a military strong and fiercely proud, united country. No intellectual freedom, and only limited room for economic freedom (under the watchful eye of the government).

17 Fascist movements were evident in all countries of Europe in the early 1920’s and 1945. (There were even fascist movements in Canada at the time) Most notable were Germany, where Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (NAZI) Party took power in 1933, and the aforementioned Italian fascist state. It is an ideology, which is linked to the past. It is based on the notion that a mythical ideal age once existed could be reborn. In this mythical era, the citizens were “racially pure” and were ranked in a strict social order ruled by a strong father figure. The Nazis also saw the Germans as a superior race descended from ancient Aryan warriors.


19 Fascism for the most part is no longer practiced as it was in Germany and Italy in the 1930’s, but it is found in some countries with a military government that keeps a tight rein on intellectual and economic life. The regime of General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, who in 1973 took over the government of Chile, is sometimes described as an example of modern-day fascism.

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