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Structure and Electoral Process

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Presentation on theme: "Structure and Electoral Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 Structure and Electoral Process
Canadian Government Structure and Electoral Process

2 What You NEED To Know! The Political Spectrum and the Ideologies
The different levels of Government The responsibilities of each level The different branches of Government What some current political parties stand for How the Electoral System works

3 The Political Spectrum

4 The Political Spectrum
Left Wing Right Wing Moderate

5 Political Ideologies

6 The Ideologies Communism Socialism
Revolutionary, sharing of all resources; ultimate goal: no class or status; strong gov’t control in economy Believe in the good of the whole over the good of the individual; support social programs/welfare state

7 The Ideologies Continued…
Liberalism Conservatism Believe in personal freedoms, social programs; some government control in economy Believe in tradition, some personal freedom; strongly support smart finances over social programs

8 The Ideologies Continued
Fascism Strong state control over everything; no personal freedoms, obedience to the state; one party and one leader

9 The Political Spectrum – So where do the Ideologies fit?
Communism Socialism Liberalism Conservatism Fascism

10 Political Parties in Canada
Liberals Conservatives NDP Bloc Quebecois Support individual freedoms, social programs, multiculturalism, free trade Balance between programs and budget, free trade Social programs, gov’t sponsored healthcare, education Quebec separatist party

11 Structure of the Canadian Government
Canadian Government is divided up into three different levels; each level has its own responsibility Additionally, the government is also divided up into different branches, with each branch responsible for a different aspect of governing

12 Government Structure

13 The Levels of Canadian Government
Federal Provincial Municipal Foreign policy, immigration, taxation, currency, defense, EI, postal system Health care and education (federally funded), police, resources, road + bridges, housing Libraries, local police, fire departments, building permits, parks + rec, garbage/recycling

14 Structure of the Federal Government
Canadian Government is broken up into three separate branches, each responsible for it’s own part of governing Executive – executes/makes decisions Legislative – makes new laws Judicial – enforces the laws

15 Structure of Federal Government

16 The Executive Branch Prime Minister – head of government; represents Canada in matters of national importance, develops relationships with other nations etc. Cabinet – members of the majority party, given a specific portfolio (ie. Minister of Finance) Backbenchers – members of parliament who don’t have a specific office Shadow Cabinet – Critics of the current members of Cabinet

17 Structure of the Federal Government


19 The Legislative Branch
The House of Commons – elected by Canadians, serve for 5 years, vote on bills The Senate – appointed, final check on bills passed on the house of commons The Governor General – Queen’s representative in Canada; a figure head, mostly for ceremonial purposes

20 The Senate – A Side Note Men and women are appointed to the Senate not for their skills or abilities, but for loyal support or service to the government (patronage) Critics of this system want a Senate that follows the “Triple – E” process: Elected, Equal (not voting on party lines), and Effective (they do little other than review bills passed in the house of commons)

21 The House of Commons – A Side Note
For a bill to become law, it must go through a number of steps before it is signed by the Prime Minister and the Governor General First Reading – bill is read and printed Second Reading – bill is debated Committee Stage – members break the bill down part by part (clause) Report – Members are allowed to make other amendments to the bill Third Reading – Members debate one last time and votes are cast Senate – Bill goes through the Senate in a similar fashion Royal Assent – Bill is signed by the GG

22 Structure of the Federal Government

23 The Judicial Branch Supreme Court of Canada – highest court; decisions are binding and final, must pass a law to reverse these decisions Provincial Courts – have own Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Small Claims Court, and Trial Division

24 The Electoral Process

25 The Electoral Process Areas are divided up into ridings (areas containing roughly 100,000 people – not according to actual land area) The people vote at polling stations Winners are determined by the First Past the Post (FPTP) – someone wins when they have more votes than every other candidate

26 The Electoral Process The winning government is the party First Past the Post (with the most votes) Can win one of two primary ways: Majority – having more than half the seats in parliament Minority – having more votes than any other party, but less than half the seats (ie. The last election)

27 The Electoral Process After all votes have been counted, we are usually left with two primary parties: The Government – the party elected to make decisions for Canada The Official Opposition – the party with the next most votes, who will attempt to keep the current government accountable for its actions

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