2FascisLatin term for a bundle of rods, firmly tied together with a beheading axe protruding from the center.It was a symbol of absolute authority in ancient RomeWhich is why Mussolini chose this symbol
3Fascism - what is it?applied mostly to the movement spawned from Benito Mussolini in Italy fromFascism Rejects the Major philosophical trends of the last two centuries that stress individual liberty and equality of all men and races.embraces social Darwinism.The Italian slogan was ‘To believe, to obey to combat.’
4Main characteristicsAction over thought - no moral or rational reasoning - Use of violence to further party and national aimsUltra-nationalistic beliefs. - Creation of national myths and great reliance on pageantry and symbolismUnquestioned rule of Dictator - Individual serves the state - the state does not serve the people; citizens are to obey and serveExtremely anti-communistUltimate goal is to be imperialist through conquest of war.
5All about Benito born in 1883 in Varano di Costa in Romagna, Italy. His father was a blacksmith and socialist.Full name: Benito Amilcare Andrea after the left-wing Mexican revolutionary Benito JuarezHis mother was a deeply religious school teacher.He spent the days fighting with other boys or hunting.
6At 9 parents sent him to boarding school due to his bad behaviour Benito hated school rulesHated how much parents had to spend on tuitionGot in a lot of fightsStabbed another boy with a pen knife
7At 10 he was sent to another school which he liked better He worked hard and became well known for his powerful speeches, most of which had socialist leanings.In July, 1901, Mussolini received an elementary teacher's diploma.
9Taught for a year before moving to Switzerland He was avoiding Italy’s conscriptionMussolini's life in Switzerland was one of vagrancy.He begged for change and lived on the streets.Learned about Marx, Nietzsche and Buddhism
10Eventually deported due to violent ways Went to France to teach, but went back to SwitzerlandBecame an established Socialist1904 Italian King announced a pardon to all deserters
11Mussolini returned to Italy to enlist for military duty Conscripted for WWI but was exempt due to a grenade training injurySo he looked for a different way to make a name for himself.
12Italy after WWI Italy devastated after WWI Little success in battle Peace didn’t come with all that was promisedItalians resented allied powersWilson would not give Italians the territory they wanted at the PPC as there were no Italians in them
13Society after the war Inflation Rise of socialist activities Extreme poverty in the south - peasants start occupying landIn the North prices rose 560% and unemployment increased.
15Post war elections Failed to produce stable governments 5 different governmentsProportional representation to blame (5% of vote means 5% of seats)No one could get a majority, lots of coalitions
16Bolsheviks in MilanBolsheviks in Milan began to organize a take over of the country.There were several massive strikes.Big industries like Fiat looked desperately for someone to crush this threat.
17Benito makes his move A Fascist movement begins in Milan in 1919. Mussolini saw his opportunity in protecting landowners and industrialists from the socialists factory and land seizures.He recruited unemployed ex-servicemen and middle class youth
18Mussolini lead his group of Fascists against Socialists and Trade Unions; bringing him the support of industrialists who were afraid of a left-wing seizure of power.The fascists were supplied with arms and transport and promises of immunity of punishment.
19Mussolini called his gang ‘Combat Squads’ and unleashed them on peasants and workers. They would club their victims to death and torture others.There was huge pay out from landowners, industrialists and banks…. In the Millions of pounds.
20Things get legitIn 1921 The Fascist Party was asked to join the National Block Coalition with the Liberals, democrats and nationalists.Mussolini won 35/535 seats in the election.
21Enter the BlackshirtsIn 1922 Mussolini’s party had a membership of 360,000 of which 50,000 were a member of Combat Squads, now given the nickname ‘The Blackshirts’.Mussolini uses his private army to show his mightHe outfits them all with Black Shirt uniforms to make them feel special
23March on RomeOn October 28, 1922, Mussolini puts the word out that he is going to march into Rome with 26,000 Blackshirts.The King decided to make Mussolini the new Prime Minister rather than risk civil war by sending in the troops.So on Oct 29, Mussolini became prime minister of Italy
24It is important to note the March on Rome was only a threat. Mussolini arrived in Rome on a train after the King invited him.Mussolini does not have complete control yet and rules in a coalition governmentHe takes steps to secure his power:
25Acerbo Election LawWho ever got the largest number of votes (as long as it was 25% or more) would automatically get 2/3 of the seats in the lower house of parliament.The rest of the seats would be divvied up proportionally.This allowed Mussolini to gain 374 out of 535 seats in April 1924.
26Murder of Giacomo Matteotti an outspoken opponenton June 10, 1924, 5 fascists thugs on the party payroll killed him.There is no proof that Mussolini ordered this murder.The people liked Matteotti and were upset with his death
27Loss of freedomsTakes away freedom of press, assembly, speech, and freedom from arbitrary arrest‘useless or harmful liberties’Trade unions abolished
28The Corporate StateTrade unions were replaced with ‘corporations’, which were run by fascists to settle disputes; interests of bosses usually won out and the living standards of workers fell.All economic planning was centralized
29Other changes He adopted the title ‘Il Duce’ Civil service purged 1928 cancelled future elections and replaced the Italian parliament with the Fascist Grand Council
30political parties are banned (except for Mussolini’s of course). In 1926 he reinstated the death penalty.In 1927 he set up his secret police the OVRA to harass political opponents.
31Important eventsThe Corfu Incident. An Italian General and their officers were assassinated while on Greek territory in August of Mussolini bombarded and occupied the Island until the Greeks paid indemnity and apologized.
32The economy Autarchy. Fascism believes in a self-sufficient state. launched the ‘Battle for Wheat’ with the goal of increasing production and decreasing imports.From wheat production went up 75%.He tried to do the same with a ‘battle of births’ but was unable to get the population to comply.Unemployment reached 1.1 million in 1932
33It’s all Benito’s fault He fired the competent Finance minister to give his friend a jobHe raised the value of Italian currency, the lira, to 90 to the pound instead of 150, making Italian exports more expensive; thus demand for Italian goods abroad fell sharply.Wasted money helping Franco out in Spain
34But what about the good things Mussolini did? Road infrastructure increased.Archeology was pushed to the forefront and tourist was boosted because of the new artifacts discovered.Iron ore and steel production increased as well as hydro electric power.
35The Lateran Accords Catholic Church last possible opposition Traditionally Pope forbids Catholics from participating in politics (no voting)In exchange for not saying bad things about fascism the Pope got: control over education, recognition as the official state religion and the right of the Pope to have the Vatican as it’s own state
37Foreign Policy1934 he guaranteed Austria’s Independence against German Threats.In 1935 Hitler attempted to invade Austria and murdered the Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss, to which Mussolini reacted instantly.Mussolini could not risk Hitler taking over Austria for the safety of Italy.He sent three tank divisions to the Austrian border. Hitler was out-bluffed and out bullied and backed down.
38Stresafront Agreement Mussolini declares his stand against Hitler in the Stresafront Agreement of 1935.In this agreement Italy, France and Britain condemned Germany’s re-armament.Shows Mussolini did not always want to align with Hitler
40Oct AbyssiniaMussolini wanted to restore Italy’s Empire to the glory of Rome.Abyssinia was between two Italian Colonies and had been the location of a humiliating Italian defeat in 1896
411934 - Italy provoked an incident where Italians were killed and demanded an apology Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations but they stalled for a yearIn October of 1935 Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and was successful due to the new inventions of flamethrowers and poison gas.
42Newsreel film and eyewitness reports of the Italian use of poison gas and flame throwers brought public outrage in Britain and France.
43The League of Nations applied sanctions on Italy - did not include steel, coal and copper Austria, Hungary and Germany refused to obey the sanctionsSanctions were a joke - UK even allowed Italy to continue to use the Suez Canal
44Hoare-Laval Plan - respective foreign ministers from Britain and France. Agreed to let Italy have Abyssinia if they stopped fighting immediately. This secret agreement was leaked to the press and other countries stopped obeying sanctions (why bother?)An attempt to patch up the Stresa Front
45Mussolini quoted saying he would have quite within a week if oil sanctions in December had been imposed
46Germany continued to trade with Italy normally throughout the incident and an alliance between the two nations was forged.Hitler dominated this alliance and the Italian people were against it as Germany was a traditional enemy.The May 22, 1939 Pact of Steel solidified the link between Germany and Italy in an offensive and defensive alliance.Based on the assumption war would probably start in 3 years