Born in 1883 Son of a blacksmith Before WWI: professional revolutionary, left wing socialist, and radical journalist
School master by 1901. Arrested in 1903 for stirring up controversy in Switzerland. Inspired by the writing of Sorel and Nietzsche.
Abandoned Socialism in December 1914. During the war he became an intense nationalist. He demanded the conquest of Italia irredenta (Italian territory inside of Austrian borders)
March 1919 Fasci Italiani di Combattimento What is fascism?
The Blackshirts The March on Rome Mussolini becomes Prime Minister The Totalitarian State Il Duce
The Acerbo Law Reasons for the law The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti
Taking over ministries The MVSN (Blackshirts) OVRA (Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti- Fascism) The Christmas Eve Law (1925)
Public Construction Programs The “Battle for Wheat” Mussolinia The “Battle for Land” “Gold for the Fatherland”
Propaganda Replacing liberalism and democracy The role of teachers and professors “Free Press”
“reorganizing the youth from a moral and physical point of view” “fascist education is moral, physical, social, and military: it aims to create a complete harmoniously developed human, a fascist one according to our views”
Building an Italian Empire Avenging past defeats Battle of Adowa (March 1896) “A Place in the Sun”
The new fort at Wal Wal The Wal Wal Incident Border Clashes Response of The league of Nations (Great Britain and France)
Emperor Haile Selassie The Abyssinian Army Types of Equipment The Imperial Guard
October 1935 The Hoare-Laval Pact (December 1935) The Christmas Offensive Chemical Warfare “the terrible rain that burned and killed”
Selassie flees Abyssinia The New Emperor of Abyssinia Mussolini’s moment of glory Italy gains its empire Selassie’s speech “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.”