2Defeat in Victory World War One Ambitions Treaty of Versailles SetbacksNational Debt Expanded to pay for WarInflation RampantDestroyed Middle Class SavingsFixed Salaries hitIndustry happy as long as war continuedPost war contracts ended – Job cutsLabour MilitancyDemobilisationUnemployment soars
3Polarised PoliticsNewly enfranchised Working Class flock to Socialist PartyRussian RevolutionPlanned overthrow of Liberal StateConservatives petrified of Bolshevik style takeoverLiberals - Falling between the StoolsSeen as caving in to WorkersOr, as not forcing reform fast enoughNovember 1919 electionsUniversal Male Suffrage
4Mutilated Victory Liberals blamed for disastrous Versailles deal Fiume regarded as essential for new Yugoslav stateDalmatia deniedGerman colonies deniedLiberalism and Parliamentary democracy blamed by military and NationalistsLiberals lumped together with Socialist BolsheviksNew dynamic Italy requiredD’Annunzio provides prototype2,000 ex-soldiers and nationalists take Fiume by forceLiberal Government does not use force to Prevent D’Annunzio
5Mussolini’s Rise Socialist Youth Libya Editor of Avanti World War One AggressiveVitriolicAttacked Liberal StateAdvocated violent Socialist RevolutionWorld War OneSplit with SocialistsImperialist war versus speeding up revolutionMussolini in favour of warIl Popolo D’Italia
6The Shift to the Right Mussolini’s War Service Il Popolo Editor 1915 – 1917 CorporalWounded in accidentIl Popolo EditorBlames Liberal Government for CaporettoItaly needs a Dictator to guide country to victory‘Newspaper of Combatants and Producers’As opposed to parasitic Businessmen/Profiteers, Socialist Pacifists and Liberals‘Combat Group’ Fasci di CombattimentoMarch 1919100 anti –Liberals (and Anti-Socialist (Class Struggle))Nationalists, Republicans, Anarchists, Futurists, Radical Poets and PaintersRadical Programme of Immediate DemandsNew Assembly, Abolition of Nobility, Republic, Co-operativesUse Violence and Intimidation against Opponents
7November 1919 ElectionsUniversal Suffrage and Proportional RepresentationPopolari100 SeatsNo single voice or ideological agreementSocialists156 seats – the largest partyNorthern basedIrresponsible and uncompromising leadershipSplit over Soviet ‘Opportunities’Independent Socialists21Liberals23 rightists91 Giolitti CentristsRadical liberals down to 67FascistsZERO – Nothing – Nada – Not one Deputy!No overall majority! Radical Liberal Nitti soldiers on with Minority government
8Liberal Suicide Nitti’s government falls over Fiumi Giolitti Coalition Liberals, Radicals, Popolari and some SocialistsEconomic ChaosStrikes, clashes, Lock outsGiolitti remains ‘Neutral’Enrages IndustrialistsDoes not satisfy Trade Unionists/SocialistsFascists note weakness and offer to fill gapLeads to deal with the devil!
9Fascist Constitutional Engagement? Rising tide of ViolenceLocal criminals and thugs join inProvide ‘Protection’ to landowners & IndustrialistsHelp against striking socialistsBolshevik threat milkedMussolini’s Perceived authority over Fascist SquadsThrough Il Popolo d’ItaliaClaims to be able to control SquadsConvinces squads of benefit of unified leadership
10Out – Foxing the Fox Giolitti attempts deal with Mussolini To harness Anti-Socialist sentimentsConfers respectability on Fascist thugsAuthorities turn blind eye to Fascist excesses100 socialists dieFirst Fascist FootholdMussolini himself electedPR Lists
11May 1921 Election Results Government bloc (184) opposition (175) Extreme Nationalists 10Fascists 35National Bloc (Giolitti) 139opposition (175)Radicals (Liberal Democrats) 68Popolari 107Left opposition (176)Reformists 29Socialists 123Communists 15National minorities 9Total seats (535)
12The House of Sand Collapses Giolitti Haemorrhaging SupportMussolini withdraws immediatelyFoothold achievedAvoid blame for upcoming crisesPopolari withdraw support over taxRemaining Liberals distrust each otherParliamentary collapse mirrored by law and order collapseSocialists beaten up at willFascists beat up socialist deputy in Parliament!
13Fascist Opportunities Mussolini converts Fascist movement into a PartyOctober 1921Becomes official leader November 1921Broadens appealConservativesOpposes deals with UnionsPromises to Restore orderCatholicsOpposes DivorcesHelp Peasants Improve their lotPromises to settle Vatican situationMost of 1919 Left wing promises quietly ditchedDual PolicyConstitutional EngagementPolitical Thuggery
14Socialist Patience Snaps Fed up with Violence directed at themFed up with government inactionFed up with Police ConnivanceCall General StrikeJuly 1922Plays into Mussolini’s handsFascists attempt to carry on functions of striking workers / Police / Courts / Judge & JuryStart negotiations with Liberals over running areas of government whilst plotting a Coup D’etatFascists claim to be ‘Defenders of Law and Order’
15The March on Rome‘For my part I prefer 50,000 rifles to 5 million votes.’Plan30,000 fascists take over Northern Cities and then March on RomeRealityMussolini negotiates with MonarchKing is Commander in Chief of ArmyCousin Aosta a Fascist sympathiserLosing patience with weak Liberal GovernmentsSeveral thousand Fascists camp outside of Rome in rain waiting for ordersGovernment forces sent to disperse Fascists congregating
17The King hands the Pretender the Throne Victor Emmanuel changes mindAs troops are approaching Blackshirts, King refuses to agree to ‘Martial Law’Army frozenGovernment ResignsKing approaches conservative liberal SalandraLiberals cannot agree to support Salandra governmentMussolini invited to become Prime MinisterOctober 29th 1922Mussolini takes train to RomeBlackshirts parade victoriously through Rome
18Consolidating Power Cautious Start by Mussolini First AdministrationOnly 4 Fascists (out of 14)Popolari and LiberalsHappy to use Fascists to crush SocialistsThen plan to absorb/discard fascistsMussolini builds up tensionThreat of Socialist violenceThreat of Bolshevik RevolutionMost Violence Fascist InspiredDemanded a 12 month period to rule by decreeUntil situation stabilises
19Requesting Power“With 300,000 young men, fully armed, ready for anything and almost religiously prompt to obey any command of mine, I could have punished all those who have slandered the Fascisti… I could have shut up Parliament and formed a government of Fascisti exclusively. I could have done so, but I did not wish to do so, at any rate at the moment… Before arriving here we were asked on all sides for a programme. It is not, alas, programmes that are wanting in Italy., but men to carry them out.”
20Emperor Mussolini? Rule by decree vote Liberals and Popolari fall for ‘Temporary’ Dictator MussoliniIncluding Salandra, Giolitti and FactaOnly Socialists and Communists vote against
21The Emperor consolidates his power amongst the Fascists Grand Council of Fascism formedProposes all laws to the ‘Government’Mussolini appoints All Grand CouncillorsReduces power of Regional Fascist LeadersFascist Squadrismo converted to militia30,000 Private ‘Loyal’ ArmyPaid for by StateUsed to Intimidate all opponents
22Divide & Conquer Industrialists Church Drops Giolitti’s Tax Evasion clamp downStrike BreakingChurchBans ContraceptionRE compulsory in State SchoolsPope withdraws support for Popolari
23Tailoring the Electoral System Acerbo LawThe largest party to receive 2/3rds of seats (as long as it secures 25% of vote)Guarantees working MajorityGuarantees end to weak coalitionsGuarantees Dictatorship!Blackshirt intimidationof Parliamentarians
24Constitutional Confirmation of Power 1924 Election Results Fascist & Right Wing Liberal Electoral Pact66% of voteExtensive ‘Legal’ IntimidationExtensive Ballot RiggingFascist deputiesFrom 35 to 374Socialists & Communists still receive 2.5 million votes
25The Matteoti Murder Mussolini Implicated Socialist Giacomo Matteoti presents evidence of Fascist intimidation to ParliamentFascist thugs abduct MatteotiBroad daylightDragged into carStabbed to deathMussolini denial of involvementPress links Mussolini to murderersHaemorrhages public supportRemaining non-Fascist deputies set up rival parliamentAsk King to dismiss MussoliniGiolitti and Salandra prop up weakened Mussolini
26All or Nothing! July 1924 Introduces Fascist Ultimatum to Mussolini Press CensorshipBans Public Meetings by Opposition PartiesFascist Ultimatum to MussoliniHaemorrhaging SupportDeclare Dictatorship or step aside!King’s Position PivotalJanuary 1925 IntroducesOpposition Political Parties bannedFree Trade Unions bannedPress Censorship strengthenedNew Secret Police createdNew Courts to try political crimesMayors nominated rather than electedMussolini could rule by Decree
27Essay“The Socialist threat and the belief that Italy had suffered a mutilated victory in the first world war enabled Fascism to grow and take power.” How far do you agree with this statement?
28Increasing Mussolini’s Control 1925 Last Fascist Party CongressInternal arguments banned by Mussolini1926 Cabinet Meetings suspendedMussolini takes Foreign, Interior and Defence ministeries for himself1926 Parliamentary powers curtailedNo discussions on policy, no amending of legislation, no criticism of government allowed1926 Election lawWorking classes in socialist areas prevented from votingAll candidates to be approved by Fascist party98%1928 All Fascist party appointments made from Rome HeadquartersTo undercut Ras1939 Parliament dissolves itselfChamber of Fasces and Corporations
29The Lateran Agreement Neutralising Catholicism Pope Recognises 1929Pope RecognisesItalian StatePapal StatesRomeMussolini RecognisesVatican CityPays £30 Million compensation to churchCatholicism as official State religionState to pay salaries of clergyClergy prevented from political activity of any kindCatholic RE compulsory1939 Pope recants
30The Cult of Personality Control of flow of informationOpposition newspapers suppressed‘Press Office’ to distribute ‘authorised’ storiesState Radio Network establishedRadios given to all schoolsCommunal radio centresCinemaOfficial films to precede all films“The public are stupid, dirty, do not work hard enough and are content with little cinema shows”Heroic Portrayal of Il DuceAll pictures of Mussolini personally vettedMan of action, culture, genius, youthfulness20 hours a day storiesLightsClaims all credit, blames all failuresMilitarism encouragedUnrelenting stream of propagandaYouth Organisations
33The Corporate State De Stefani 1922 - 25 Orthodox Liberal Economics ProfessorBoom periodTrade Unions and strikes bannedReduced State Interference1927 Labour Charter - Corporative SystemOfficial unions including employees, employers and Fascists1927 Battle of the LireStrong currency = strong countryHits ExportsImport levies on importsExcept for steel, ships and armaments1932 World DepressionInterventionPublic Works projectsBail out of banksCheap loans provided1935 League of nations sanctionsAutarky1925 Battle of GrainEconomies of Scale
34Foreign Policy 1923 Corfu 1924 Fiume ceded to Italy Bombardment and invasion after assassination of Italian General1924 Fiume ceded to Italy1924 – 26 Albania and Yugoslavia1925 Locarno1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact1933 Hitler visit1934 Dolfuss Affair1935 Abyssinia1936 Rome Berlin Axis1936 – 38 Spanish Civil War1940 Invasion of FranceDistractionorExpansion?