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Cellular Communication Chapter 11 Local communication In what ways do cells communicate locally? In what ways do cells communicate over longer distances?In.

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Communication Chapter 11 Local communication In what ways do cells communicate locally? In what ways do cells communicate over longer distances?In."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cellular Communication Chapter 11

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4 Local communication In what ways do cells communicate locally? In what ways do cells communicate over longer distances?In what ways do cells communicate over longer distances?

5 Regulation by chemical messengers axon endocrine gland receptor proteins target cell Neurotransmitters released by neurons Hormones release by endocrine glands receptor proteins hormone carried by blood neurotransmitter Lock & Key system

6 Three Stages of Cell Signaling Reception 1 EXTRACELLULARFLUID Receptor Signalingmolecule Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM 1

7 Fig Reception 1 EXTRACELLULARFLUID Receptor Signalingmolecule Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM 1 Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Transduction 2

8 Fig EXTRACELLULARFLUID Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Receptor Signalingmolecule Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Activation of cellular response Reception TransductionResponse 1 2 3

9 Steroid Hormones: Hormone(testosterone) Receptorprotein Plasmamembrane EXTRACELLULARFLUID DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM What type of Molecule is a steroid?

10 Receptorprotein Hormone(testosterone) EXTRACELLULARFLUID Plasmamembrane Hormone-receptorcomplex DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM

11 Hormone(testosterone)EXTRACELLULARFLUID Receptorprotein Plasmamembrane Hormone-receptorcomplex DNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM

12 Hormone(testosterone) EXTRACELLULARFLUID Plasmamembrane Receptorprotein Hormone-receptorcomplex DNA mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM

13 Hormone(testosterone) EXTRACELLULARFLUID Receptorprotein Plasmamembrane Hormone-receptorcomplex DNA mRNA NUCLEUS New protein CYTOPLASM

14 Peptide Hormones Nuerotransmitters How will the structure of these molecules cause cause them to target a cell differently?

15 Action of protein hormones activates enzyme activates enzyme activates enzyme ATP produces an action P cytoplasm receptor protein response reception secondary messenger system signal-transduction pathway acts as 2° messenger target cell plasma membrane binds to receptor protein protein hormone ATP activates cytoplasmic signal cAM P GTP activates G-protein transduction

16 adrenal gland Ex: Action of epinephrine (adrenaline) activates protein kinase-A activates glycogen phosphorylase activates adenylyl cyclase epinephrine liver cell released to blood receptor protein in cell membrane cytoplasm 6 glycogen activates phosphorylase kinase GTP cAMP 4 activates G protein ATP glucose activates GTP 3 signal transduction response 7 GDP

17 Ion Channel Receptors Signalingmolecule(ligand) Gateclosed Ions Ligand-gated ion channel receptor Plasmamembrane Gate open Cellularresponse Gate closed Seen with neurotransmitters neurotransmitters

18 Transduction

19 Signaling molecule Receptor Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 Activeproteinkinase1 Inactive 2 ATP ADP Activeproteinkinase2 P P PP Inactive 3 ATP ADP Activeproteinkinase3 P P PP i ATP ADP P Activeprotein PP P i Inactiveprotein Cellularresponse Phosphorylation cascade i

20 Second Messengers

21 First messenger Fig G protein Adenylylcyclase GTP ATP cAMP Secondmessenger Protein kinase A G protein-coupled receptor Cellular responses

22 Benefits of a 2° messenger system Amplification! signal receptor protein Activated adenylyl cyclase amplification GTPG protein product enzyme protein kinase cAMP Not yet activated FAST response! amplification Cascade multiplier!

23 Cellular Response

24 EXTRA-CELLULARFLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein GTP G protein-coupled receptor Phospholipase C PIP 2 IP 3 DAG (second messenger) IP 3 -gated calcium channel Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ CYTOSOL

25 G protein EXTRA-CELLULARFLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein-coupled receptor Phospholipase C PIP 2 DAG IP 3 (second messenger) IP 3 -gated calcium channel Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ CYTOSOL (second messenger) GTP

26 Fig G protein EXTRA-CELLULARFLUID Signaling molecule (first messenger) G protein-coupled receptor Phospholipase C PIP 2 DAG IP 3 (second messenger) IP 3 -gated calcium channel Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ CYTOSOL Variousproteinsactivated Cellularresponses (secondmessenger) GTP

27 Fig Growth factor Receptor Phosphorylationcascade Reception Transduction Activetranscriptionfactor Response P Inactivetranscriptionfactor CYTOPLASM DNA NUCLEUS mRNA Gene

28 Fig Reception Transduction Response Binding of epinephrine to G protein-coupled receptor (1 molecule) Inactive G protein Active G protein (10 2 molecules) Inactive adenylyl cyclase Active adenylyl cyclase (10 2 ) ATP Cyclic AMP (10 4 ) Inactive protein kinase A Active protein kinase A (10 4 ) Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase (10 5 ) Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylase (10 6 ) Glycogen Glucose-1-phosphate (10 8 molecules)

29 Homology in hormones prolactin mammals milk production birds fat metabolism amphibians metamorphosis & maturation fish salt & water balance growth & development What does this tell you about these hormones? growth hormone same gene family gene duplication? How could these hormones have different effects?

30 How can 1 signal molecule have multiple responses?

31 Let’s go to the Let’s go to the Video!

32 Apoptosis Cell signaling example

33 Fig µm

34 Fig a Ced-9 protein (active) inhibits Ced-4 activity Mitochondrion Ced-4Ced-3 Receptor for death- signalingmolecule Inactive proteins (a) No death signal

35 Fig b (b) Death signal Death-signalingmolecule Ced-9(inactive) Cellformsblebs ActiveCed-4ActiveCed-3 Activationcascade Otherproteases Nucleases

36 Fig Interdigital tissue 1 mm


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