4 Long Distance Signaling Hormones – chemical messengers that travel long distance.Ex. Through blood vessels
5 Signal Transduction Pathway After a signal is received a signal transduction pathway is a set of step that trigger a certain response from a cell.1 Reception2 transduction3 response**Ex. Yeast mating
8 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Receptor tyrosine kinase - membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines.When the ligand is present the two kinases form a dimer and cantrigger multipletransductionpathways.
18 Growth factor Reception Receptor Phosphorylation cascade Transduction FigGrowth factorReceptionReceptorPhosphorylationcascadeTransductionCYTOPLASMInactivetranscriptionfactorActivetranscriptionfactorFigure Nuclear responses to a signal: the activation of a specific gene by a growth factorResponsePDNAGeneNUCLEUSmRNA
19 Glucose-1-phosphate (108 molecules) FigReceptionBinding of epinephrine to G protein-coupled receptor (1 molecule)TransductionInactive G proteinActive G protein (102 molecules)Inactive adenylyl cyclaseActive adenylyl cyclase (102)ATPCyclic AMP (104)Inactive protein kinase AActive protein kinase A (104)Figure Cytoplasmic response to a signal: the stimulation of glycogen breakdown by epinephrineInactive phosphorylase kinaseActive phosphorylase kinase (105)Inactive glycogen phosphorylaseActive glycogen phosphorylase (106)ResponseGlycogenGlucose-1-phosphate(108 molecules)