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The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation

2 Exchange of mating factors a factor Receptor a a a factor Yeast cell, mating type a Yeast cell, mating type a Mating a a New a/a cell a/a

3 Local and Long-Distance Signaling
Cells in a multicellular organisms communicate by chemical messengers Animal and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells In local signaling, animal cells may communicate by direct contact In many other cases, animal cells communicate using local regulators, messenger molecules that travel only short distances In long-distance signaling, plants and animals use chemicals called hormones

4 Plasma membranes Gap junctions between animal cells Plasmodesmata between plant cells Cell junctions Cell-cell recognition

5 Local signaling Long-distance signaling Target cell Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter Endocrine cell Blood vessel Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Secreting cell Secretory vesicle Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid Target cell is stimulated Target cell Paracrine signaling Synaptic signaling Hormonal signaling

6 The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview
Earl W. Sutherland discovered how the hormone epinephrine acts on cells Sutherland suggested that cells receiving signals went through 3 processes: Reception Transduction Response

7 Relay molecules in a signal transduction
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID CYTOPLASM Plasma membrane Reception Transduction Response Receptor Activation of cellular response Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Signal molecule

8 Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape
The binding between a signal molecule (ligand) and receptor is highly specific A conformational change in a receptor is often the initial transduction of the signal Most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins

9 Intracellular Receptors
Some receptor proteins are intracellular, found in the cytosol or nucleus of target cells Small or hydrophobic chemical messengers can readily cross the membrane and activate receptors Examples of hydrophobic messengers are the steroid and thyroid hormones of animals An activated hormone-receptor complex can act as a transcription factor, turning on specific genes

10 Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID The steroid hormone testosterone passes through the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane Testosterone binds to a receptor protein in the cytoplasm, activating it. Receptor protein Hormone- receptor complex The hormone- receptor complex enters the nucleus and binds to specific genes. DNA mRNA The bound protein stimulates the transcription of the gene into mRNA. NUCLEUS New protein The mRNA is translated into a specific protein. CYTOPLASM

11 Receptors in the Plasma Membrane
Most water-soluble signal molecules bind to specific sites on receptor proteins in the plasma membrane There are three main types of membrane receptors: G-protein-linked receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases Ion channel receptors

12 A G-protein-linked receptor is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein
The G-protein acts as an on/off switch: If GDP is bound to the G protein, the G protein is inactive

13 G-protein-linked receptor
Signal-binding site Segment that interacts with G proteins G-protein-linked receptor

14 Receptor tyrosine kinases are membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines
A receptor tyrosine kinase can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once A kinase, alternatively known as a phosphotransferase, is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific substrates. The process is referred to as phosphorylation.

15 Fully activated receptor tyrosine-kinase (phosphorylated dimer)
Signal molecule Signal-binding site a Helix in the membrane Signal molecule Tyrosines Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Receptor tyrosine kinase proteins (inactive monomers) Dimer CYTOPLASM Activated relay proteins Cellular response 1 Tyr Tyr P Tyr P Tyr P Tyr Tyr P Tyr Tyr P Tyr Tyr P P P Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr P Tyr Tyr P P Tyr Tyr P Cellular response 2 6 ATP 6 ADP Activated tyrosine- kinase regions (unphosphorylated dimer) Fully activated receptor tyrosine-kinase (phosphorylated dimer) Inactive relay proteins


17 An ion channel receptor acts as a gate when the receptor changes shape
When a signal molecule binds as a ligand to the receptor, the gate allows specific ions, such as Na+ or Ca2+, through a channel in the receptor

18 Signal molecule (ligand) Gate closed Ions Plasma membrane Ligand-gated ion channel receptor Gate open Cellular response Gate closed

19 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell Transduction usually involves multiple steps Multistep pathways can amplify a signal: A few molecules can produce a large cellular response Multistep pathways provide more opportunities for coordination and regulation

20 Signal Transduction Pathways
The molecules that relay a signal from receptor to response are mostly proteins Like falling dominoes, the receptor activates another protein, which activates another, and so on, until the protein producing the response is activated At each step, the signal is transduced into a different form, usually a conformational change

21 Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation
In many pathways, the signal is transmitted by a cascade of protein phosphorylations Phosphatase enzymes remove the phosphates This phosphorylation (kinases) and dephosphorylation (phosphatases) system acts as a molecular switch, turning activities on and off

22 Phosphorylation cascade
Signal molecule Receptor Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 Active protein kinase 1 Inactive protein kinase 2 ATP ADP Active protein kinase 2 P Phosphorylation cascade PP P i Inactive protein kinase 3 ATP ADP Active protein kinase 3 P PP P i Inactive protein ATP ADP P Active protein Cellular response PP P i

23 Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers
Second messengers are small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions The extracellular signal molecule that binds to the membrane is a pathway’s “first messenger” Second messengers can readily spread throughout cells by diffusion Second messengers participate in pathways initiated by G-protein-linked receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases

24 Cyclic AMP Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most widely used second messengers Adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme in the plasma membrane, converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal

25 Pyrophosphate ATP Cyclic AMP AMP Adenylyl cyclase Phosphodiesterase

26 Many signal molecules trigger formation of cAMP
Other components of cAMP pathways are G proteins, G-protein-linked receptors, and protein kinases cAMP usually activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates various other proteins Further regulation of cell metabolism is provided by G-protein systems that inhibit adenylyl cyclase

27 First messenger (signal molecule such as epinephrine) Adenylyl cyclase G protein G-protein-linked receptor GTP ATP Second messenger cAMP Protein kinase A Cellular responses

28 Calcium ions and Inositol Triphosphate (IP3)
Calcium ions (Ca2+) act as a second messenger in many pathways Calcium is an important second messenger because cells can regulate its concentration

29 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane Ca2+ pump ATP Mitochondrion Nucleus CYTOSOL Ca2+ pump Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATP Ca2+ pump Key High [Ca2+] Low [Ca2+]

30 A signal relayed by a signal transduction pathway may trigger an increase in calcium in the cytosol
Pathways leading to the release of calcium involve inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) as second messengers

31 EXTRACELLULAR Signal molecule FLUID (first messenger) G protein DAG
GTP G-protein-linked receptor PIP2 Phospholipase C IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Cellular re- sponses Various proteins activated Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ Ca2+ (second messenger) CYTOSOL

32 Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Responses
Ultimately, a signal transduction pathway leads to regulation of one or more cellular activities The response may occur in the cytoplasm or may involve action in the nucleus Many pathways regulate the activity of enzymes

33 Reception Binding of epinephrine to G-protein-linked receptor (1 molecule) Transduction Inactive G protein Active G protein (102 molecules) Inactive adenylyl cyclase Active adenylyl cyclase (102) ATP Cyclic AMP (104) Inactive protein kinase A Active protein kinase A (104) Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase (105) Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylase (106) Response Glycogen Glucose-1-phosphate (108 molecules)

34 Many other signaling pathways regulate the synthesis of enzymes or other proteins, usually by turning genes on or off in the nucleus The final activated molecule may function as a transcription factor

35 Growth factor Reception Receptor Phosphorylation cascade Transduction CYTOPLASM Inactive transcription factor Active transcription factor Response P DNA Gene NUCLEUS mRNA

36 Fine-Tuning of the Response
Multistep pathways have two important benefits: Amplifying the signal (and thus the response) Contributing to the specificity of the response

37 Signal Amplification Enzyme cascades amplify the cell’s response
At each step, the number of activated products is much greater than in the preceding step

38 The Specificity of Cell Signaling
Different kinds of cells have different collections of proteins These differences in proteins give each kind of cell specificity in detecting and responding to signals The response of a cell to a signal depends on the cell’s particular collection of proteins Pathway branching and “cross-talk” further help the cell coordinate incoming signals

39 Signal molecule Receptor Relay molecules Response 1 Response 2 Response 3 Cell A. Pathway leads to a single response Cell B. Pathway branches, leading to two responses Activation or inhibition Response 4 Response 5 Cell C. Cross-talk occurs between two pathways Cell D. Different receptor leads to a different response

40 Signaling Efficiency: Scaffolding Proteins and Signaling Complexes
Scaffolding proteins are large relay proteins to which other relay proteins are attached Scaffolding proteins can increase the signal transduction efficiency

41 Signal molecule Plasma membrane Receptor Three different protein kinases Scaffolding protein

42 Termination of the Signal
Inactivation mechanisms are an essential aspect of cell signaling When signal molecules leave the receptor, the receptor reverts to its inactive state

43 Animations and Videos Biomembranes II: Membrane Dynamics and Communication Bozeman - Cell Communication Bozeman - Evolutionary Significance of Cell Communication Cell Junctions Tight Junctions Desmosomes Gap Junctions

44 Animations and Videos Bozeman - Signal Transduction
Second Messengers (cAMP and Ca+2 Pathways) Chemical Synapse – 1 Chemical Synapse – 2 Voltage-Gated Channels and the Action Potential Signal Transduction Pathway Signaling by Secreted Molecules Signal Transduction

45 Animations and Videos 2nd Messenger Signal Amplification – 1
Hormonal Communication Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action Mechanism of Thyroxine Action Action of Epinephrine on a Liver Cell Action of Glucocorticoid Hormone

46 Animations and Videos Intracellular Receptor Model
Mechanism of Action of Lipid-Soluble Messengers Mechanism of Thyroxine Action Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action Lipid Soluble Hormone Chapter Quiz Questions – 1 Chapter Quiz Questions - 2

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