Fig. 11-5 Local signaling Target cell Secreting cell Secretory vesicle Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid (a) Paracrine signaling(b) Synaptic signaling Target cell is stimulated Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter Long-distance signaling Endocrine cell Blood vessel Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Target cell (c) Hormonal signaling
Fig. 11-5ab Local signaling Target cell Secretory vesicle Secreting cell Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid (a) Paracrine signaling (b) Synaptic signaling Target cell is stimulated Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter
Fig. 11-6-1 Reception 1 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Signaling molecule Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM 1 Receptor Target cell’s detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell
Fig. 11-6-2 1 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Signaling molecule Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Transduction 2 Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Reception 1 Receptor The conversion of the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
Fig. 11-6-3 EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Receptor Signaling molecule Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Activation of cellular response TransductionResponse 2 3 Reception 1 The specific cellular response to the signal molecule
Fig. 11-7a Signaling-molecule binding site Segment that interacts with G proteins G protein-coupled receptor
Fig. 11-7b G protein-coupled receptor Plasma membrane Enzyme G protein (inactive) GDP CYTOPLASM Activated enzyme GTP Cellular response GDP P i Activated receptor GDP GTP Signaling molecule Inactive enzyme 1 2 3 4
Step 1 – signal molecules bind to receptors and a dimer is formed; each tyrosine kinase adds a phosphate group from an ATP molecule Step 2 – a unique cellular response is initiated for each phosphorylated tyrosine; this is a major difference between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases
Fig. 11-7c Signaling molecule (ligand) Ligand-binding site Helix Tyrosines Tyr Receptor tyrosine kinase proteins CYTOPLASM Signaling molecule Tyr Dimer Activated relay proteins Tyr P P P P P P Cellular response 1 Cellular response 2 Inactive relay proteins Activated tyrosine kinase regions Fully activated receptor tyrosine kinase 6 6 ADP ATP Tyr P P P P P P 1 2 3 4
Fig. 11-9 Signaling molecule Receptor Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 Active protein kinase 1 Inactive protein kinase 2 ATP ADP Active protein kinase 2 P P PP Inactive protein kinase 3 ATP ADP Active protein kinase 3 P P PP i ATP ADP P Active protein PP P i Inactive protein Cellular response Phosphorylation cascade i
Fig. 11-15 Reception Transduction Response Binding of epinephrine to G protein-coupled receptor (1 molecule) Inactive G protein Active G protein (10 2 molecules) Inactive adenylyl cyclase Active adenylyl cyclase (10 2 ) ATP Cyclic AMP (10 4 ) Inactive protein kinase A Active protein kinase A (10 4 ) Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase (10 5 ) Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylase (10 6 ) Glycogen Glucose-1-phosphate (10 8 molecules)
Fig. 11-17 Signaling molecule Receptor Relay molecules Response 1 Cell A. Pathway leads to a single response. Response 2 Response 3 Cell B. Pathway branches, leading to two responses. Response 4 Response 5 Activation or inhibition Cell C. Cross-talk occurs between two pathways. Cell D. Different receptor leads to a different response.
Fig. 11-17a Signaling molecule Receptor Relay molecules Response 1 Cell A. Pathway leads to a single response. Cell B. Pathway branches, leading to two responses. Response 2 Response 3
Fig. 11-17b Response 4Response 5 Activation or inhibition Cell C. Cross-talk occurs between two pathways. Cell D. Different receptor leads to a different response.