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The Reformation Continues Chapter 17 Section 4 Pg. 433.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Continues Chapter 17 Section 4 Pg. 433."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reformation Continues Chapter 17 Section 4 Pg. 433

2 Who started the Reformation? Martin Luther What was Martin Luther upset about? The selling of indulgences What are indulgences? Free pass for sins Why did Henry VIII leave the church? Wanted a divorce (a son) What is a protestant? A Christian who doesn’t recognize the pope as the head of the church

3 Calvin Begins another Protestant Church John Calvin just 12 years old the year Martin Luther stood trial at Worms Born in France, Calvin grew up to have as much influence as Martin did 1536 published book, Institutes of Christian Religion -Expressed ideas about God, salvation, human nature -Created a system of Protestant theology

4 John Calvin

5 Calvin thought people were sinful by nature and couldn’t earn Salvation Believed in Predestination- God knows from the beginning of time who will be saved, those people are called the “elect” Religion based on Calvin’s teachings called Calvinism

6 Calvinism Believed ideal government was a theocracy (a government controlled by religious leaders) Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city- he did so with strict rules Everyone attended religious class, couldn’t wear bright clothing or play cards Authorities imprison or excommunicate anyone breaking rules

7 John Knox People were burned at the stake, if preached differently To many protestants, Geneva was an ideal city John Knox, preacher from Scotland put the same ideas into Scottish towns after visiting Geneva

8 Calvinism Spreads Protestant nobles, led by Knox succeeded in making Calvinism Scotland’s official religion Followers of Knox became known as Presbyterians Swiss, Dutch and French reformers adopted Calvinist form of church organization Although many protestant churches trace roots to Calvin, they have softened Calvin’s strict teachings

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10 Huguenots In France, Calvin's followers were called Huguenots Hatred between Catholics and Huguenots led to violence On one occasion, mobs of Catholics began hunting for Protestants and brutally murdered them after a Catholic feast known as St. Bartholomew’s Day

11 Other Reformers Protestants taught that people should read the bible, as it was the source for truth Christians start interpreting the bible for themselves=new Protestant groups form based on those beliefs

12 Anabaptists Believed in baptizing only adults who choose to be Christian Believed church and state should be separate Refused to fight in wars Viewed by Catholics and Protestants as radicals who threaten society The forerunners of the Amish and Mennonites, influencing the quakers

13 Mostly live in northeastern part of US

14 Women of Reformation Marguerite Navarre, sister of King Francis I, protected John Calvin for being executed while in France Martin Luther’s wife, Katherina, managed family finances and argued with her husband about women’s equal role in marriage

15 The Catholic Reformation While Protestant churches had many followers, millions were true to the Catholic church Helping Catholics stay loyal was a movement within the church called the Catholic Reformation

16 Ignatius of Loyola Grew up in fathers castle in Loyola, Spain Turning point in his life came while recovering from an injury during war Thought about his sins and life of Jesus Wrote book called Spiritual Exercises, laying out a day to day plan of prayer, study and meditation

17 For next 18 years, Ignatius gathered followers 1540, the pope made his followers a religious order called the Society of Jesus Members were called Jesuits Concentrated on 3 activities: 1)found superb schools throughout Europe 2)convert non-Christians to Catholicism 3) stop Protestantism from spreading

18 Reforming Popes 2 popes took the lead in reforming the Catholic Church Pope Paul III called a council of church leaders to meet in Trent, Italy Known as Council of Trent Pope Paul III

19 Council of Trent Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines: - church’s interpretation of the bible is final, anyone interpreting different was a heretic -Christians need faith and good works for salvation- not just faith as Luther suggested -Bible and church tradition equal authorities for guiding Christian life -indulgences valid expressions of faith

20 Paul IV, another reforming pope carried out councils decrees Made a list of books considered to be dangerous to Catholic faith- Index of Forbidden Books Bishops ordered to burn them (along with Protestant Bibles) In 1 day, 10,000 books burned in Venice Pope Paul IV

21 Index of Forbidden Books

22 Legacy of the Reformation Reformation had lasting effects: – Protestant churches flourish – Religion no longer unites Europe – Church power declines – Individual monarchs and states gain power – Help set the stage for the modern world

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