2 New England’s Freehold Society Farm Families: Women in the Household EconomyWomen were subordinate to men; expected to be silent around companyOften did work around the houseOften had 6-7 children by their 40sFarm Property: InheritanceMany New England immigrants sought to own landChildren of wealthy families received land when they marriedOnce married, the wife lost all property rights to her husbandFreehold Society in Crisis:As population grew, less land was available for childrenFarmers grew maizeEventually, New England focused on livestock
3 Diversity in the Middle Colonies Economic Growth, Opportunity, and Conflict:Tenancy in New York:Tenant farmers had a hard time gaining land and wealthConflict in the Quaker Colonies:William Penn encouraged Quakers and Protestants to move to PennsylvaniaMany immigrants became squatters – illegally settling on landEventually, the Penn family claimed Indian land near PhiladelphiaMany earned a living as farmers and storekeepersCultural Diversity:Many immigrants married within their own ethnic groupsThe German Influx:Germans left Germany due to conscription, religious freedom, and taxesMany became farmersScots-Irish Settlers:Irish Test Act of 1704 – only members of Church of England could vote in IrelandMany migrated to Philadelphia as they were lured by religious freedomCome to my land Germans and other Europeans!
4 Diversity in the Middle Colonies Cont. Religion and Politics:By the 1740s, Quakers were a minority in PennsylvaniaScots-Irish were hostile towards Indians
5 Commerce, Culture, and Identity 2 major cultural movements impacted Colonial America – Enlightenment and PietismTransportation and the Print Revolution:Roads developed slowly – costly and difficult to buildInformation increased as transportation increasedColonial newspapers developed with news from EuropeThe Enlightenment in America:The European Enlightenment:Stressed human reasoning and natural rightsJohn Locke – Two Treatises of Government – consent of the governedFranklin’s Contribution:Founder of the Pennsylvania GazetteFranklin was a Deist (as was Jefferson and others) – believed in God, but that God did not interfere in the worldGod created the world and “stepped back”
6 Commerce, Culture, and Identity Cont. American Pietism and the Great Awakening: religious revival heavily based on emotionNew England Revivalism:Johnathan Edwards – Sinners in the Hands of an Angry GodDrew inspiration from religious movements in EuropeWhitefield’s Great Awakening:George Whitefield – great oratorTraveled throughout the coloniesThose that converted were considered “New Lights”Religious Upheaval in the North:“New Lights”: those that embraced the Great Awakening and converted“Old Lights”: older preachers against conversions and emotionalism of The Great AwakeningSignificance of The Great Awakening?Undermined traditional authority – new churches developed“New Light” colleges developed – Princeton, Columbia, RutgersChallenge to authority would later influence the American Revolution
7 Commerce, Culture, and Identity Cont. Social and Religious Conflict in the South:Many African Americans and poor whites were left out by Anglican ministersThe Presbyterian Revival:Many converted in Virginia and other areasDiversity in religion challenged tax supported Anglican-ChurchThe Baptist Insurgency:Focused on adult baptism – “born again”Baptism appealed to African Americans; belief that all people were equalHouse of Burgesses made it illegal to preach to slaves without their owners permission
8 The Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750 - 1763 The French and Indian War:Conflict in the Ohio Valley:French built forts in the Ohio Valley – PA and OHGeorge Washington essentially started the war in PAThe Albany Congress:Purpose was to keep Iroquois on the side of the BritishFranklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union – “Join or Die”This passed at the conference, but rejected by colonial legislatures and the BritishThe War Hawks Win:War Hawks – those that favor war – seen in War of 1812 and VietnamBritain declared war on France, became a world warColonists could only be promoted so far based solely on being colonists
9 The Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750 - 1763 The Great War for Empire:After 9 years of fighting, Britain wins the French and Indian (7 Years’ War)France is essentially removed from North America – Indians lost a valuable trading partnerPontiac’s Rebellion (1763): Indian rebellion against colonists encroaching on their land, led to the British issuing The Proclamation Line of 1763
10 The Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750 - 1763 British Industrial Growth and the Consumer Revolution:Britain experienced a consumer revolution that led to increased debt for colonistsThe Struggle for Land in the East:More and more colonial farmers sought land near the Appalachian Mountains (would be an issue in 1763)Western Rebels and Regulators:Paxton Boys – Scots-Irish in PA that massacred IndiansThe South Carolina Regulators:Regulators demanded more fair treatment of colonists living in the western portion of SC: better taxes, more representation, etc.Exemplifies conflict between East and West, rich and poor
11 Quick RecapMiddle Colonies, especially PA, were ethnically and religiously diverseEnlightenment ideas changed society and encouraged individuals to question authorityThe First Great Awakening created religious diversity and questioned traditional authorityThe French and Indian (7 Years’ War) removed France from North America and ended salutary neglectPaxton Boys and Regulators demonstrated tensions between “east” and “west”
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