Presentation on theme: "History 320: THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION INSTRUCTOR: HILMAR M. PABEL."— Presentation transcript:
History 320: THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION INSTRUCTOR: HILMAR M. PABEL
What is an historical question? i(stori/a (history) as inquiry Factual questions: When / where was Martin Luther was born? Questions of broader significance require more than a single word or sentence for an answer. They can often be broken down into several questions. They require relatively extensive research. They can elicit divergent answers.
Central Questions What was the Reformation? Why did it occur? Where and when did it take place? How did it develop? What were its varieties? Was the Reformation one or many? How successful was it? How do historians interpret the Reformation? How do we find and evaluate these interpretations?
Introduction to MacCulloch’s book Meanings of words count: Catholic, Protestant, evangelical “Who or what is Catholic?” (xxix) Protestants and evangelicals (xx) “Reformation disputes were passionate about words because words were myriad refractions of a God one of whose names was Word” (xx).
Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation statements of purpose and subject matter “I have written this book…” (xix) “My subject…is the Church” (xxi) “This book has no room to describe…” (xxii) staking positions “multiple Reformations” (xix) “It was a process of extreme physical and mental violence” (xxi) “One conclusion to be drawn…” (xxiii) “the importance of ideas,” “ideas mattered profoundly,” “the power of ideas” (xxiii) “My own viewpoint…” (xxv)
Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation: method: chronological / thematic structure 1) A Common Culture, 2) Europe Divided, 1570-1619 3) Patterns of Life
The Old Church, 1490-1517 Seeing Salvation in Church First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory Layfolk at Prayer Second Pillar: Papal Primacy A Pillar Cracks: Politics and the Papacy Church versus Commonwealth
Seeing Salvation in Church What does salvation mean? The First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory Background: the sacraments chantries indulgences Layfolk at Prayer confraternities, Oratory (of Divine Love) pilgrimage devotions to passion of Christ, Mary Modern Devotion
Two English Churches Church of St. John the Baptist, Preston Bissett Church of St. John the Baptist, Preston Bissett Rood screen, St. Mellanus Church, Mullion, Cornwall Rood screen, St. Mellanus Church, Mullion, Cornwall More on rood screens More on rood screens
The Eucharist, Piety, and Prayer the Mass Transubstantiation (25-26) chantry good works prayer for the living and dead Purgatory: “one of the most successful and long-lasting ideas in the Western Church” (13) Mass of St. Gregory the Great Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1511) Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1511) Illumination in Hours of Henry VIII (1500) Illumination in Hours of Henry VIII (1500)
Layfolk at Prayer Confraternities Oratory of Divine Love, Rome, 1517 Pilgrimage and the cult of the saints devotion to the Passion of Christ devotion to Mary Modern Devotion: equal spiritual participation of laity and clergy, Imitation of Christ
Crucifixion Scenes Lucas Cranach the Younger, Weimar Altarpiece, 1555, Image and commentaryImage and commentary Altarpiece in the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Weimar, Germany Altarpiece in the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Weimar, Germany All three panels of the altarpiece All three panels of the altarpiece From Altarpiece at Isenheim by Matthias Grünewald (ca. 1517)Altarpiece at Isenheim by Matthias Grünewald Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with St. Dominic (1442), Florence, San MarcoCrucifixion with St. Dominic Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with Saints, (1442), Florence, San MarcoCrucifixion with Saints
Continuation in tutorial MacCuloch, 26-52: The Second Pillar