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History 320: THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION INSTRUCTOR: HILMAR M. PABEL.

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Presentation on theme: "History 320: THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION INSTRUCTOR: HILMAR M. PABEL."— Presentation transcript:

1 History 320: THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION INSTRUCTOR: HILMAR M. PABEL

2 What is an historical question?  i(stori/a (history) as inquiry  Factual questions: When / where was Martin Luther was born?  Questions of broader significance require more than a single word or sentence for an answer.  They can often be broken down into several questions.  They require relatively extensive research.  They can elicit divergent answers.

3 Central Questions  What was the Reformation?  Why did it occur?  Where and when did it take place?  How did it develop?  What were its varieties? Was the Reformation one or many?  How successful was it?  How do historians interpret the Reformation?  How do we find and evaluate these interpretations?

4 Introduction to MacCulloch’s book  Meanings of words count: Catholic, Protestant, evangelical  “Who or what is Catholic?” (xxix)  Protestants and evangelicals (xx)  “Reformation disputes were passionate about words because words were myriad refractions of a God one of whose names was Word” (xx).

5 Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation  statements of purpose and subject matter  “I have written this book…” (xix)  “My subject…is the Church” (xxi)  “This book has no room to describe…” (xxii)  staking positions  “multiple Reformations” (xix)  “It was a process of extreme physical and mental violence” (xxi)  “One conclusion to be drawn…” (xxiii)  “the importance of ideas,” “ideas mattered profoundly,” “the power of ideas” (xxiii)  “My own viewpoint…” (xxv)

6 Getting at MacCulloch’s interpretation:  method: chronological / thematic  structure  1) A Common Culture,  2) Europe Divided,  3) Patterns of Life

7 The Old Church,  Seeing Salvation in Church  First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory  Layfolk at Prayer  Second Pillar: Papal Primacy  A Pillar Cracks: Politics and the Papacy  Church versus Commonwealth

8 Seeing Salvation in Church  What does salvation mean? The First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory  Background: the sacraments  chantries  indulgences Layfolk at Prayer  confraternities, Oratory (of Divine Love)  pilgrimage  devotions to passion of Christ, Mary  Modern Devotion

9 Two English Churches  Church of St. John the Baptist, Preston Bissett Church of St. John the Baptist, Preston Bissett  Rood screen, St. Mellanus Church, Mullion, Cornwall Rood screen, St. Mellanus Church, Mullion, Cornwall  More on rood screens More on rood screens

10 The Seven Sacraments 1. Baptism 2. Confirmation 3. Eucharist aka Communion 4. Penance (confession, contrition, satisfaction) 5. Holy Orders 6. Marriage 7. Extreme Unction

11 The Eucharist, Piety, and Prayer  the Mass  Transubstantiation (25-26)  chantry  good works  prayer for the living and dead  Purgatory: “one of the most successful and long-lasting ideas in the Western Church” (13)  Mass of St. Gregory the Great  Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1511) Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (1511)  Illumination in Hours of Henry VIII (1500) Illumination in Hours of Henry VIII (1500)

12 Layfolk at Prayer  Confraternities  Oratory of Divine Love, Rome, 1517  Pilgrimage and the cult of the saints  devotion to the Passion of Christ  devotion to Mary  Modern Devotion: equal spiritual participation of laity and clergy, Imitation of Christ

13 Crucifixion Scenes  Lucas Cranach the Younger, Weimar Altarpiece, 1555, Image and commentaryImage and commentary  Altarpiece in the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Weimar, Germany Altarpiece in the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Weimar, Germany  All three panels of the altarpiece All three panels of the altarpiece  From Altarpiece at Isenheim by Matthias Grünewald (ca. 1517)Altarpiece at Isenheim by Matthias Grünewald  Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with St. Dominic (1442), Florence, San MarcoCrucifixion with St. Dominic  Fra Angelico, Crucifixion with Saints, (1442), Florence, San MarcoCrucifixion with Saints

14 Continuation in tutorial  MacCuloch, 26-52: The Second Pillar


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