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Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North?

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Presentation on theme: "Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North?

2 Field trip to Steamtown Friday October 11

3 Notebooks will be graded! We will have QUIZZES!

4 After class: Tables….careful not to drag on floor. Help clean up, sweep floor, empty cans in bathroom, screen put away

5 Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North?

6 Review Mr. Upton Irish Potato Famine Culture English Money Opium Wars

7 Map

8 Margaret Thatcher the……

9 Margaret Thatcher the…… bottle snatcher! Iron Lady.

10 Remember, remember the 5 th of……..

11 Remember, remember the 5 th of November Guy Fawkes day. Plot to blow up House of Lords Saved King James I life Thanksgiving Day

12 Queen Victoria Victorian era….?

13 Queen Victoria Victorian era b: 1819

14 Irish Potato Famine

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16 Irish Potato Famine Landlords, tenants ( cotters ). MP’s Export food to England Rent money exported to England Landlords pay rate to parish for every tenant,< 4 pounds/year…eviction

17 Irish Potato Famine potatoes per day! Staple for the poor… Milk, butter, meat, wheat….exported

18 Irish Potato Famine One variety of potato grown… Potato blight wipes out 85%..... Crop failure on European Continent... but no famine, no immigration. Same in USA…. receives immigrants.

19 Irish Potato Famine Genocide: Landlord, Parliament, Protestants, exports, greed. This is a stain on Great Britain and the Industrial Revolution.

20 Irish Potato Famine

21 Irish Potato Famine = Great Famine More than 4 Million fewer Irish….. in years. Starvation, disease, immigration

22 Irish Potato Famine = Great Famine

23 before 1800: Land owners, old power, feudal leftover Parish clergy after 1800: Business owners, new power Rising middle class

24 A Corn Law was first introduced in Britain in 1804, when the landowners, who dominated Parliament, sought to protect their profits by imposing a duty on imported corn. During the Napoleonic Wars it had not been possible to import corn from Europe. This led to an expansion of British wheat farming and to high bread prices. Farmers feared that when the war came to an end in 1815, the importation of foreign corn would lower prices. This fear was justified and the price of corn fell from 126s. 6d. a quarter in 1812 to 65s. 7d.

25 This legislation was hated by the people living in Britain's fast-growing towns who had to pay these higher bread prices. The industrial classes saw the Corn Laws as an example of how Parliament passed legislation that favoured large landowners. The manufacturers in particular was concerned that the Corn Laws would result in a demand for higher wages. There was a dreadful harvest in This caused bread prices to increase rapidly. This was followed by industrial unrest as workers demanded higher wages in order to pay for the increased food prices. As well as strikes there were food riots all over Britain.industrial unrest as workers demanded higher wages in order to pay for the increased food prices. As well as strikes there were food riots all over Britain. The Corn Laws had an important political impact on agroup of middle-class moderate reformers meeting at the home of John Potter.group of middle-class moderate reformers meeting at the home of John Potter

26 Three years later British landowners applied pressure on members of theHouse of Commons to take action to protect the profits of the farmers. Parliament responded by passing a law permitting the import of foreign wheat free of duty only when the domestic price reached 80 shillings per quarter (8 bushels). During the passing of this legislation, the Houses of Parliament had to be defended by armed troops against a large angry crowd.House of Commons to take action to protect the profits of the farmers. Parliament responded by passing a law permitting the import of foreign wheat free of duty only when the domestic price reached 80 shillings per quarter (8 bushels). During the passing of this legislation, the Houses of Parliament had to be defended by armed troops against a large angry crowd.

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28 Population BC YearPop. 5000BC60, BC100, BC300, BC1,500,000

29 Population YearPop. ±% p.a ,250,000— 13503,000, % 15412,774, % 16014,110, % 16515,228, % 17005,058, % 17515,772, %

30 Population YearPop. ±% p.a ,754,875— 18118,762, % ,402, % ,011, % ,654, % ,288, % ,325, % ,361, % ,397, % ,231, % ,072, % ,561, % ,230, % ,359, % ,084, % ,668, % ,159, % ,460, % ,978, % ,197, % ,138, % ,012, %

31 Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution

32 Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution Move from farms to cities

33 Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution Cheaply built, overcrowded housing Industrial pollution Terrible sanitation

34 Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution Cheaply built, overcrowded housing Industrial pollution Terrible sanitation….. Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated water

35 Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated water Spread of Disease: Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.

36 Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North? Breaktime!

37 Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated water Spread of Disease: Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.

38 Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated water Spread of Disease: Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.

39 Sewage-related occupations: Tosher Mudlark Nightsoil men, Gong farmers Flushermen Rat-catchers

40 Orphans in 19th Century Victorian England by Jodi Greig The Victorian Era was a time of social evolution as well as technological and economic advance. A distinct, unique middle class was formed alongside the traditional working class and wealthy aristocracy. However, there were certain individuals that fell outside this model of Victorian society. The “abandoned child” was society’s scapegoat- a person without a past, without connections, without status. They could appear in any class, at any time. Orphans were also often treated with disdain and distrust, due to their reputation as “criminally prone” individuals. They were a victim of classic “Victorian contradictions” that characterized most aspects of Victorian society.

41 Victorian Definition of “Orphan” When we hear the word “orphan” we imagine a child whose parents have both died tragic deaths. Indeed, there were plenty of these pitiable creatures in Victorian society – the living and working conditions of the poor were so unsanitary and crowded that diseases such as typhus and tuberculosis often spread unchecked, sending many of their victims to the grave (Czarnik, “Living Conditions”). However, children were often considered “orphans” if they had one surviving parent, had been abandoned by their family, or were forced out into the world because of overcrowding at home (Cunningham, “Orphan Texts”). In 1861, it is estimated that 11% of children had lost a father by the age of 10, 11% a mother, and 1% had lost both parents (Czarnik).

42 Orphanages After the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1934, also known as the New Poor Law, orphanages and children’s homes were created for those who could not care for themselves. Boys were generally taught a trade and girls were prepared to enter domestic service (Czarnik). However, some of these institutions were so awful that children actually opted to pursue a criminal lifestyle on the street than to suffer in an orphanage.

43 Adoption A very common fate of orphans was adoption. They were often taken in by relatives or neighbors, and even, on occasion, strangers wishing to raise them as their own children. Children who were adopted by their own social class were usually treated fairly and equally… however, if they were adopted by a family whose status was above and beyond their original class, they were frequently mistreated and neglected. Children of different social classes were not encouraged to fraternize, so if an orphan was taken into a household where higher class children lived, they could be forbidden to even speak to them (Czarnik).

44 Education Orphans sometimes met another fate… being placed in an educational institution. Many philanthropists donated money to these “schools” for the express purpose of boarding and educating orphans. Their education was rarely as good as those whose families paid for it, yet it still gave them an advantage that many of their peers lacked. Most of these programs were designed specifically to train children to a lower-middle class occupation, such as becoming a governess. Food, education, and lodging were provided until the orphan turned 17… then they were expected to begin working (Czarnik).

45 Some of these institutions were not such a good “opportunity”. Many were underfunded, crowded, and unsanitary. Disease spread rapidly in such close quarters, and poor nutrition and excess corporeal punishment didn’t help matters much. (Charles Dickens: Nicholas Nickleby)

46 Criminals/Other Occupations Orphans who were not adopted nor entered an institution often became criminals. Indeed, an estimated 60% of the criminal population were orphans, at one point or another (Cunningham, “Orphan Texts”). They indulged in thievery or became prostitutes to survive (Payne, “Two literary”). The more honest orphans who lived on the streets often banded together for survival, doing menial tasks for the upper class, or begging for money.

47 Works Cited Cunningham, Hugh. “Orphan Texts: Victorian Orphans, Culture and Empire (review)” Victorian Studies Summer March df> Czarnik, Jason. “Living Conditions of Orphans in Nineteenth Century England”. Charlotte’s Web. Ed. Lisa Denney, Elizabeth Bellalouna, and Lauren Russette. U of Michigan-Dearborn. Winter March Payne, Jennifer. “Two literary treatments of prostitution in mid-19th century England: Rosetti's "Jenny" and Gaskell's ‘Esther’” History Homepage for Jennifer Payne. 24 August March

48 The Terra Cotta Warriors of Emperor Qin Dress – neat, modest

49 English Currency

50 Pound, Quid, shilling, Pence, h-penny farthing, guinea

51 Moral Compass: What keeps the needle pointing North? Old British Money Prior to decimalization in 1971 Britain used a system of pounds, shillings and pence. ('£sd' or 'LSD'). The smallest unit of currency was a penny, the plural of which was pence (or pennies). There were 12 pence in a shilling and 20 shillings in a pound. The pound came in the form of a paper bill, called a note, or a gold coin, called a sovereign.

52 As a unit of currency, the term pound originates from the value of one pound Tower weight of high purity silver known as sterling silver. Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% other metals, usually copper. The word sterling is believed to come from the Old Norman French esterlin (meaning little star) transformed in stiere in Old English (strong, firm, immovable).

53 A guinea (first issued on February 6th, 1663) was sometimes used as a unit of account. A guinea was a gold coin, originally made of gold from the Guinea coast of Africa, worth 21 shillings (or one pound and 1 shilling) in old British money. A guinea was considered a more gentlemanly amount than £1. A gentleman paid his tailor in shillings, but his barrister in guineas.

54 1 farthing (the lowest value coin) = 1/4 penny A ha'penny (Half penny - a copper coin) = 1/2 penny (pronounced "heipni") 1 penny (a copper coin) = one of the basic units (1d) Threepence or Thruppenny Bit = 3 pence (pronounced "thrupence") Sixpence (a silver coin also called a 'tanner') = 6 pence 1 shilling = 12 pence (1s) 1 florin (a silver coin that numismatists regard as one of the most beautiful medieval English coins) = 2 shillings A half-crown = 2 shillings and 6 pence 1 crown = 5 shillings = 1/4 pound 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence (£1) 1 sovereign = a gold coin with a face value of one pound (about.24 ounces of 22 carat gold)

55 The slang term for a pound or a number of pounds sterling is 'quid’. The slang money expression 'quid' seems first to have appeared in late 1600's England, probably derived from the Latin 'quid pro quo’ 'something exchanged for something else’.

56 The old slang term for a shilling was 'bob' and for a guinea - 'yellow-boy'. Other slang terms: Fiver = £5, Lady Godiva (Cockney rhyming slang for a fiver) = £5, Tenner = £10, Pony = £25, Half a ton = £50, Ton = £100, Monkey = £500, Grand = £1000.

57 Sixpence = 6 pence 1 shilling = 12 pence (1s) A half-crown = 2 shillings and 6 pence 1 crown = 5 shillings = 1/4 pound 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence (£1)

58 Sixpence = 6 pence 1 shilling = 12 pence (1s) A half-crown = 2 shillings and 6 pence 1 crown = 5 shillings = 1/4 pound 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence (£1)

59 Which would you rather have……. A pound or a pence? A shilling or a pound? Which is worth more…. a quid, a monkey, or a grand?

60 The Terra Cotta Warriors of Emperor Qin


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