23before 1800:Land owners, old power, feudal leftoverParish clergyafter 1800:Business owners, new powerRising middle class
24A Corn Law was first introduced in Britain in 1804, when the landowners, who dominated Parliament, sought to protect their profits by imposing a duty on imported corn. During the Napoleonic Wars it had not been possible to import corn from Europe. This led to an expansion of British wheat farming and to high bread prices.Farmers feared that when the war came to an end in 1815, the importation of foreign corn would lower prices. This fear was justified and the price of corn fell from 126s. 6d. a quarter in 1812 to 65s. 7d.
25This legislation was hated by the people living in Britain's fast-growing towns who had to pay these higher bread prices. The industrial classes saw the Corn Laws as an example of how Parliament passed legislation that favoured large landowners. The manufacturers in particular was concerned that the Corn Laws would result in a demand for higher wages.There was a dreadful harvest in This caused bread prices to increase rapidly. This was followed by industrial unrest as workers demanded higher wages in order to pay for the increased food prices. As well as strikes there were food riots all over Britain.The Corn Laws had an important political impact on agroup of middle-class moderate reformers meeting at the home of John Potter.
26Three years later British landowners applied pressure on members of theHouse of Commons to take action to protect the profits of the farmers. Parliament responded by passing a law permitting the import of foreign wheat free of duty only when the domestic price reached 80 shillings per quarter (8 bushels). During the passing of this legislation, the Houses of Parliament had to be defended by armed troops against a large angry crowd.
31Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution
32Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution Move from farms to cities
33Population Shifts During the Industrial RevolutionCheaply built, overcrowded housingIndustrial pollutionTerrible sanitation
34Population Shifts During the Industrial Revolution Cheaply built, overcrowded housingIndustrial pollutionTerrible sanitation…..Poor living conditionsPolluted air and waterStreets full of waste, contaminated water
35Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated waterSpread of Disease:Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.
36What keeps the needle pointing North? Breaktime!Moral Compass:What keeps the needle pointing North?
37Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated waterSpread of Disease:Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.
38Poor living conditions Polluted air and water Streets full of waste, contaminated waterSpread of Disease:Typhus, Cholera, Influenza.
39Sewage-related occupations: Tosher Mudlark Nightsoil men, Gong farmers FlushermenRat-catchers
40Orphans in 19th Century Victorian England by Jodi GreigThe Victorian Era was a time of social evolution as well as technological and economic advance. A distinct, unique middle class was formed alongside the traditional working class and wealthy aristocracy. However, there were certain individuals that fell outside this model of Victorian society. The “abandoned child” was society’s scapegoat- a person without a past, without connections, without status. They could appear in any class, at any time. Orphans were also often treated with disdain and distrust, due to their reputation as “criminally prone” individuals. They were a victim of classic “Victorian contradictions” that characterized most aspects of Victorian society.
41Victorian Definition of “Orphan” When we hear the word “orphan” we imagine a child whose parents have both died tragic deaths. Indeed, there were plenty of these pitiable creatures in Victorian society – the living and working conditions of the poor were so unsanitary and crowded that diseases such as typhus and tuberculosis often spread unchecked, sending many of their victims to the grave (Czarnik, “Living Conditions”). However, children were often considered “orphans” if they had one surviving parent, had been abandoned by their family, or were forced out into the world because of overcrowding at home (Cunningham, “Orphan Texts”). In 1861, it is estimated that 11% of children had lost a father by the age of 10, 11% a mother, and 1% had lost both parents (Czarnik).
42Orphanages After the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1934, also known as the New Poor Law, orphanages and children’s homes were created for those who could not care for themselves. Boys were generally taught a trade and girls were prepared to enter domestic service (Czarnik). However, some of these institutions were so awful that children actually opted to pursue a criminal lifestyle on the street than to suffer in an orphanage.
43Adoption A very common fate of orphans was adoption Adoption A very common fate of orphans was adoption. They were often taken in by relatives or neighbors, and even, on occasion, strangers wishing to raise them as their own children. Children who were adopted by their own social class were usually treated fairly and equally… however, if they were adopted by a family whose status was above and beyond their original class, they were frequently mistreated and neglected. Children of different social classes were not encouraged to fraternize, so if an orphan was taken into a household where higher class children lived, they could be forbidden to even speak to them (Czarnik).
44Education Orphans sometimes met another fate… being placed in an educational institution. Many philanthropists donated money to these “schools” for the express purpose of boarding and educating orphans. Their education was rarely as good as those whose families paid for it, yet it still gave them an advantage that many of their peers lacked. Most of these programs were designed specifically to train children to a lower-middle class occupation, such as becoming a governess. Food, education, and lodging were provided until the orphan turned 17… then they were expected to begin working (Czarnik).
45Some of these institutions were not such a good “opportunity” Some of these institutions were not such a good “opportunity”. Many were underfunded, crowded, and unsanitary. Disease spread rapidly in such close quarters, and poor nutrition and excess corporeal punishment didn’t help matters much. (Charles Dickens: Nicholas Nickleby)
46Criminals/Other Occupations Orphans who were not adopted nor entered an institution often became criminals. Indeed, an estimated 60% of the criminal population were orphans, at one point or another (Cunningham, “Orphan Texts”). They indulged in thievery or became prostitutes to survive (Payne, “Two literary”).The more honest orphans who lived on the streets often banded together for survival, doing menial tasks for the upper class, or begging for money.
47Works Cited Cunningham, Hugh Works Cited Cunningham, Hugh. “Orphan Texts: Victorian Orphans, Culture and Empire (review)” Victorian Studies Summer March <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/v045/45.4cunningham.pdf>Czarnik, Jason. “Living Conditions of Orphans in Nineteenth Century England”. Charlotte’s Web. Ed. Lisa Denney, Elizabeth Bellalouna, and Lauren Russette. U of Michigan-Dearborn. Winter March <http://www.umd.umich.edu/casl/hum/eng/classes/434/charweb/czarnik1.htm>.Payne, Jennifer. “Two literary treatments of prostitution in mid-19th century England: Rosetti's "Jenny" and Gaskell's ‘Esther’” History Homepage for Jennifer Payne. 24 August March <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/7023/prostitution.html>.
48The Terra Cotta Warriors of Emperor Qin Dress – neat, modest
51What keeps the needle pointing North? Old British Money Prior to decimalization in 1971 Britain used a system of pounds, shillings and pence. ('£sd' or 'LSD'). The smallest unit of currency was a penny, the plural of which was pence (or pennies). There were 12 pence in a shilling and 20 shillings in a pound. The pound came in the form of a paper bill, called a note, or a gold coin, called a sovereign.Moral Compass:What keeps the needle pointing North?
52As a unit of currency, the term pound originates from the value of one pound Tower weight of high purity silver known as sterling silver. Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% other metals, usually copper. The word sterling is believed to come from the Old Norman French esterlin (meaning little star) transformed in stiere in Old English (strong, firm, immovable).
53A guinea (first issued on February 6th, 1663) was sometimes used as a unit of account. A guinea was a gold coin, originally made of gold from the Guinea coast of Africa, worth 21 shillings (or one pound and 1 shilling) in old British money. A guinea was considered a more gentlemanly amount than £1. A gentleman paid his tailor in shillings, but his barrister in guineas.
541 farthing (the lowest value coin) = 1/4 penny A ha'penny (Half penny - a copper coin) = 1/2 penny (pronounced "heipni")1 penny (a copper coin) = one of the basic units (1d)Threepence or Thruppenny Bit = 3 pence (pronounced "thrupence")Sixpence (a silver coin also called a 'tanner') = 6 pence1 shilling = 12 pence (1s)1 florin (a silver coin that numismatists regard as one of the most beautiful medieval English coins) = 2 shillingsA half-crown = 2 shillings and 6 pence1 crown = 5 shillings = 1/4 pound1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence (£1)1 sovereign = a gold coin with a face value of one pound (about .24 ounces of 22 carat gold)
55The slang term for a pound or a number of pounds sterling is 'quid’ The slang term for a pound or a number of pounds sterling is 'quid’. The slang money expression 'quid' seems first to have appeared in late 1600's England, probably derived from the Latin 'quid pro quo’ 'something exchanged for something else’.
56The old slang term for a shilling was 'bob' and for a guinea - 'yellow-boy'. Other slang terms: Fiver = £5, Lady Godiva (Cockney rhyming slang for a fiver) = £5, Tenner = £10, Pony = £25, Half a ton = £50, Ton = £100, Monkey = £500, Grand = £1000.