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Chapter 11 Section 2 A Century of Reform in Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Section 2 A Century of Reform in Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Section 2 A Century of Reform in Britain

2 Economic reforms that benefited British workers and others Free trade – trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, etc. – Early 1800’s foreign imports were taxed to protect local industries Supporters of free trade – Increased market outside England – Consumers would benefit from more competition (lower prices) Corn Laws kept price of British grain high with high tariffs on imported grains – Farmers & wealthy landowners supported Corn Laws, made more money Free traders wanted Corn Laws repealed (canceled) – The result would be lower price of grain – Make price of bread cheaper for workers – Open up trade

3 The issue of slavery in Britain 1807 – Britain 1st European nation to abolish slave trade 1833 – banned slavery in all British colonies

4 Capital Crimes Crimes punishable by death Early 1800’s over 200 crimes 1850 reduced number of capital offenses to treason, murder, piracy & arson – Petty criminal sent to penal colonies – special settlements for convicts – Australia, New Zealand – 1868- ended public hangings, improved prison conditions outlawed imprisonment for debt

5 Reforms for Industrial workers 1842 mine workers could no longer employ women or children under 10 1847 women & children – 10 hour day Late 1800’s improved safety conditions, set minimum wages & maximum working hours 1825 trade unions made legal (strikes still illegal) Education Act – free elementary education for all children 1883 Fabian Society – socialist organization – Promoted gradual change through legal means, not violence – Worked for social reforms 1900 Socialists & Fabians formed new political party – Labour Party

6 Women’s Sufferage Women were divided on voting issue – Queen Victoria was against the idea Emmeline Parkhurst – leading suffragist, she was radical – Huge public demonstrations – Turned to violent protests – Arrested, jailed, went on hunger strikes

7 “Irish Question” England conquered Ireland in 1100 1600’s colonized Ireland; took possession of best farmland – Irish resented absentee landlords – owned large estates but did not live on them – Irish peasants lived in poverty – Paid high rents to English landlord – Irish Catholics forced to pay tithes to Church of England

8 Irish Nationalists Campaigned for freedom & justice Led by Daniel O’Connell, formed Irish Catholic League “To get Ireland for the Irish” 1829 British Parliament passed Catholic Emancipation Act, allowed Catholics to vote & hold political office

9 The Great Hunger - Potato Famine ¾’s of Irish farmland used for crops sent to England Potato main source of food for most Irish people 1845 blight/disease destroyed potato crop; resulted in terrible famine – In 4 years 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease About 2 million emigrated to U.S. & Canada

10 Irish Home Rule Struggle for Home Rule – local self-government 1850’s organized Fenian brotherhood – goal to liberate Ireland from British rule by force 1870’s moderate nationalists were led by Charles Parnell – Ended Irish tithe to Anglican Church – Prevented landlords from charging unfair rents – Protected rights of tenants to land they worked 1914 Parliament passed Home Rule Bill and Ireland became independent in 1921

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