2 Effects of the Agrarian and Industrial Revolutions Working and living conditions in the new industrial towns were awful – 17 hour working days, child labour, no regulation and very poor housingThe in countryside the enclosure of the land had thrown peasants off their land and deprived the poor of old ‘common rights’ on common landThere was therefore a big increase in both the discontented urban and rural poorThe industrial revolution resulted in a change from the domestic system to the factory system. New machines replaced the formerly well paid work of skilled craftsmen. The first protest movements were noticeably attacks on new machines e.g. the Luddites
3 The Effects of the Wars with France Britain had been at war on and off with France since the 1790’sWar brought hardship and misery to the working class as the cost of living rose dramaticallyBread prices rose by around 100% between 1790 and 1815 as supplies could not be brought in from Europe and British farms themselves suffered a series of bad harvests. As food prices rose dramatically wages could not keep upWar also caused a rise in income taxes which hurt the poorest the most driving many into complete poverty.
4 The Speenhamland System As poverty rose more people were forced to apply for some form of poor relief from government.A new system of poor relief was adopted in 1795 called the Speenhamland System. This linked help given to the poor by local areas to the price of bread and the number of children a person had to support – a small supplement was then taken out of the parish rates to help the poorest.The unforeseen consequences of this was that employers (farmers) stopped giving workers a pay rise knowing that the parish would look after them and the workers had to suffer the indignity of a ‘charity handout’ in order to survive
5 The End of the WarsThe end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 added to economic problems and bred further discontent.200,000 soldiers and sailors returned home looking for work at a time when things were already difficultGovernment contracts for uniforms, armaments caused a slump and unemployment in all related industries
6 ParliamentBoth government and parliament were dominated by rich landowning aristocratsOver half all land was owned by a few thousand rich and titled familiesThe aristocracy (those with inherited noble titles such as Lord, Earl, Duke, viscount etc. dominated positions in government and the churchOnly male wealthy landowners had the vote. This caused discontent amongst both the poor and the new factory owning middle class brought about by the industrial revolutionGovernment was solely in the hands of and in the interests one class of peopleThere were two political parties the Whigs and the Tories (later to become Liberals and Conservatives) which had developed out of the conflict between king and parliament during the English Civil War. Both parties were dominated by landed aristocrats
7 The Corn LawsIn 1815 with the end of the wars the price of food fell dramatically as supplies once gain could be imported from Europe.Instead of letting food prices fall the government acted to protect the interests of landowners by keeping prices (and therefore profits) high by passing the Corn Laws.The Corn Laws stated that imported wheat could only come into the country once home grown wheat had achieved a price of 80 shillings a quarter.The Corn Laws became the source of much discontent as they were seen as a measure to protect the wealth of the landed classes at a time when cheaper food could have alleviated some of the sufferings of the poor
8 TaxationDuring the wars the National Debt (deficit or what the government owed) had more than tripled from £247,000,000 in 1792 to £902,000,000 in 1816Instead of reducing this deficit by taxing the wealthy the government decided to abolish income tax and replace it with heavy duties on everyday items such as tea, sugar, tobacco, beer, soap and candles – things that everyone needed. This hit the poor hardest
9 The Example of the French Revolution In 1789 French Revolutionaries had risen up against their monarch and landed classes in violent revolutionRadicals in Britain such as Tom Paine (who wrote ‘The Rights of Man’ in 1792) started to publicise radical new ideas associated with the French Revolution – liberty, fraternity and equality
10 The Radical Campaign for Reform From there were a series of upheavals and protests involving ordinary people1811 – the Luddites1816 – Spa Fields Meetings1817 – the March of the Blanketeers and the Pentrich Rising1819 – the Peterloo Massacrethe Cato Street ConspiracyYou will be assigned one of these events to research as a group and then present to the class your findings – you must be able to tell us in detail both what happened and how the government/authorities responded. You will also need to evaluate what you think of how the government responded
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