Attachments What are Attachments –Device fitted to Lift Truck to enable safe handling of loads.
Attachments Lift Truck Capacity –Fitting an attachment affects the lift truck capacity. –The load capacity with the attachment fitted must be shown on a name plate attached to the lift truck indicating the maximum load that can be handled with the attachment fitted.
Attachments Any Attachment used on a Lift Truck must be identified with; Manufacturer/Make/Model Capacity at load centre Horizontal centre of gravity Lost Load Mass
Attachments Forks, must engage minimum 75% of load Varies lengths, widths, styles, tips available 10% wear = 20% loss of strength
Attachments Side Shifts Enables side movement of load for positioning.
Attachments Fork Positioners Enables positioning of forks from operators seat.
Attachments Fork Clamps, Bale Clamps Enables safe handling of loads where clamping is required. Rotating and Non Rotating.
Attachments Carton Clamps Palletless Handling of suitable product
Attachments Paper Roll Clamps Safe handling of Paper Rolls in both vertical and bilge position
Attachments Multi Pallet Handlers Moves multiple pallet at one time
29 PART 1: General knowledge Types of Industrial Tyres & Wheels Tyre Properties Different Variations Composition
30 Industrial Tyre Training A simple way to determine the tyre type: Pneumatic - air filled Resilient – solid/layered rubber core SolidAir ® - resilient tyre with sidewall holes Press-on cushion – solid with steel band base Polyurethane - cured polymers Each type is designed to provide advantages in different uses. There are many types of forklift tyres. Forklifts intended for different uses have specialized kinds of tyres. The most common types of forklift tyres are Pneumatic, Resilient (solids), and Polyurethane.
31 They are commonly used to help the forklift deal with rough terrain easily, such as a rough terrain forklift. They are made from strong, thick rubber and have a deep tread. 3 most common tyre types 1: Pneumatic One of the first types of forklift tyres is the pneumatic kind. Pneumatic tyres are tough and durable and look just like the tyres that are used on most heavy-duty trucks.
32 They are known as resilient tyres, as they are resilient against general damage; never puncture or become deflated like pneumatic tyres. Resilient tyres have evolved greatly since their humble “solid” beginning to provide excellent grip, traction, and top ride quality, assuring higher durability and cost efficiency. 2: Resilient Although resilient tyres look similar to pneumatic tyres they are made up of internal layers of solid rubber. 3 most common tyre types
33 Forklift tyres made of polyurethane are the best type to use on electric forklifts. Various compounds have been created to endure different surfaces including cool stores. Suitable for indoor use and even hard floors. 3: Polyurethane The evolution of the new forklifts created the need for polyurethane tyre and wheel assemblies. The strength and hardness of the polyurethane helps to carry heavy loads, work in extreme temperature environments and provide stability for high lift requirements. 3 most common tyre types
34 Tyre properties PNEUMATIC TYRES Form and function rely on correct inflation pressure Bias Ply nylon or Radial steel layers Options Budget Mid range Premium Types Black (standard) Non marking
35 Construction differences of BIAS ply & RADIAL ply Common bias ply construction Common radial tyre construction Tyre properties
36 RESILIENT TYRES Form and function rely on design, manufacturing quality and material used for construction. Options Budget - usually 2 compound Mid range - usually 3 compound Premium - 3 compound premium rubber Types Black – standard Non marking Tyre properties
37 Resilient Tyres – Asian Concept n“2” stage design nFriction based heal nHard tread compound nStandard bead wires Tyre properties Tyre properties n Resilient Tyres – American Concept n “2” stage design n Friction based heal n Hard tread compound
38 Resilient Tyres – European Concept n“3” stage design nSteel cord for optimum base support nHardened natural rubber base nShock absorbing middle layer nWear resistant tread Tyre properties Tyre properties
39 Tyre Properties Quick Base resilient tyres nQuick base tyres are designed to provide a quicker fitment. nQuick’s minimise the requirement for multiple wheel components nLess components = lower maintenance and repair costs nPremium quick style tyres offer best tyre-to-wheel cohesion nThese are also known as Loc – Click - Limpet
40 PRESS-ON CUSHION TYRES Form and function rely upon material, bonding and fit nQuality manufacturing processes nLong lasting tread nProfile Construction nAnti-abrasion and high anti-cut characteristics nHigh modulus of compression elasticity nPrecision engineered steel band Tyre properties
41 Types nBlack – standard nNon marking Press-on Cushion Tyres Tread Design Options nLug nHalf tread (HT) nSmooth or Slick tread (SM) Tyre properties
42 POLYURETHANE TYRES Polyurethane tyres rely upon Quality materials + Quality process control systems Compounding for specialised applications Extreme conditions use a “ harder ” material Benefits include higher rigidity, reduced internal heating & less flattening Tyre properties
43 POLYURETHANE LOAD WHEELS Different compounds for various surfaces Specialty harnesses for extreme temperatures (cold or hot) Many different wheel types Tyre properties
44 Specialised Polyurethane products are designed for: n Cold stores n Materials handling n Stage technology n Heavy duty applications n Drum drives n High temperature areas n Explosion-proof areas n Hygienic areas Tyre properties
45 Part 2: Tyres in Service Case studies Understanding sizes What tyres suite your application What causes effect tyre life About non marking tyres Assessing tyre wear patches Safety aspects Review questions
46 Smooth Tyre performance vs. Treaded There are a number of factors which influence tyre performance and behavior in wet conditions including geometry of rubber, temperature, velocity and floor conditions. In general: On wet floors tread patterns become important, especially on high speeds (over 100km/ph due to the water evacuation and aquaplaning). On dirty floors (mud, loose surfaces) a tread pattern becomes essential in evacuating the loose materials. Low speed applications on normal harden pavements the grip does not rely on the tread pattern, due to high contact pressure (± 0.8-1.0Mpa).
47 Conclusions Smooth tyres have better grip than treaded tyres on dry, clean floors, due to the fact they have a larger contact area. Maximized tyre life is achieved with the SMOOTH tread due to the elimination of lug-to-void-area and damage characteristics such as lug tear, uneven wear (heal and toe) and leading edge contact damage. On low speed applications and wet floors, studies have shown that up to 15km/h a smooth tyre even has better grip than a treaded tyre, as all the water is squeezed out of the interface tyre/road, again due to the high contact pressures.
48 When not to use smooth tyres.... Mud and water
49 When you can use smooth tyres... Cement surface and water
50 Non Marking Tyres Low profile Resilient tyres, Cushion tyres and Poly tyres in non marking compounds are gaining popularity - especially due to new factories and higher warehouse racking systems being introduced. This trend is also being driven by the desire of many “Clean Industries”. In sensitive conditions and environments such as medical, food and paper it is an important clean floor.
51 Non Marking Tyre Different non marking tread types for different applications. Resilient Pneumatic Lug - pneumatic
52 Recommendations for Non Marking When installing Non Marking tyres on any forklift the following points should be observed.. “Earth Strap” * The absence of the (conductive) carbon black in non marking tyres acts as a non conductive to static electricity. This is particularly important in areas with volatile substances.
53 Non Marking tyres should be only utilised “In-doors” Dirt adheres to the Non Marking tyres and is then deposited back on the inside clean floor. Recommendations for Non Marking For press-on cushion tyre machines that require Non Marking tyres we recommend that a 1’’ wider tyre than standard be utilised. WHY ?
54 What is a Skid Mark ??? Act of skidding or slipping To slide instead of revolving with drive Of a wheel – vehicle etc to slide or slip sideways because of loss of traction Skid mark after emergency braking on brushed concrete Keep the area clean – better house keeping
55 Skid marks Brushed External Concrete Rough Concrete
56 What is a Burn Mark ??? To destroy or wear out by heat or friction To destroy or scorch or mark the surface Caused by Non Marking tyres and Polyurethane load wheels
57 4 Forks working in this area New factory 2 to 3 weeks old Burn out 18 feet
58 1 forklift working in this area Floor finish has melted These types of “marking” are not a sign of increased productivity - rather an increase in maintenance, repair and replacement costs.
59 What is the 60J Line ?? The 60 J Line is what we consider to be the wear out point of a resilient tyre. Wearing the tyre past this point will reduce the load carrying capacity. There will also be rapid wear due to the fact you are now into the middle layer compound (softer rubber).
60 The 60 J Line or Safety Line should be clearly marked as per these examples: SAFETY LINE Smooth resilient tyre with 60J marker60J marker and Rim Guard stamping – not to be confused. What is the 60J Line ??
61 Wear Point of a Cushion Tyre The easiest way to distinguish the wear point of a press-on cushion tyre is the Top of Lettering
62 Wear Point of a Pneumatic Tyre Wear point of a pneumatic (air filled ) tyre can vary depending on tread pattern and different brands. As soon as you see canvas you must replace tyre straight away. CANVAS
63 Metal Grates and Ramps Dirty Floors, Rough or Course surface Common causes of tyre damage
64 Common causes of tyre damage Steel ramp with broken mesh
65 Erratic drivingUneven surfaces Common causes of tyre damage
66 Causes of rapid wear This is caused by consistent turning in one direction
67 Causes of rapid wear Some drivers use the forklift as a bulldozer; not as it should be used to lift and move items. Using the forklift in an improper manner will cause the wheels to spin. The result is rapid tyre wear resulting in large deposits of tread rubber on the ground
68 Cause of rapid wear Long runs – skid marks – rubbish
Harmonisation One piece of WHS legislation including regulations for all of Australia Commenced in NSW, QLD, NT, ACT and Commonwealth on 1 January 2012 TAS & SA expected to come on board by 1 January 2013. WA and VIC have not confirmed commencement date.
The Law For those states which started 1 January 2012 Work Health and Safety Act Work Health and Safety Regulation Codes of Practice Guidance Materials
Fundamentals of safety Safe System of Work Training Instruction Information Supervision Risk Management Monitor Review Audit Consultatio n
WHS responsibilities Duties owed by: PCBUs Employers Self-employed Contractors Controllers Officers Workers Designers Manufacturers Suppliers Installers Constructors Duties owed to: Employees Contractors Sub-contractors Self-employed Customers Self Visitors Public generally
Reasonably practicable That which is or was reasonably able to be done weighing up factors including: 1.likelihood of hazard/risk occurring 2.degree of harm from hazard/risk 3.what a person knows or ought to know of hazard/risk 4.availability and suitability of way to eliminate or minimise the risk 5.after assessing the risk and controls, the costs of eliminating or minimising the risk
Plant If you manage or control plant, you have to make sure that it is without risks to health and safety If you import plant, you have to make sure it is without risks to health and safety –Use, store, assembly, persons nearby and exposed to the plant, test and provide adequate information
Plant cont. If you supply plant, you have to make sure it is without risks to health and safety –Use, store, assembly, persons nearby and exposed to the plant, test and provide adequate information If you maintain plant, inspect or test plant, this must be done –In accordance with the manufacturers recommendations, or if none, recommendations by a competent person
Plant cont. If you design or manufacture plant, you have to make sure it is without risks to health and safety –Use, store, assembly, persons nearby and exposed to the plant, test and provide adequate information
Penalties Nature of OffencesMaximum Penalty – corporation Maximum Penalty – individual Category 1The most serious offences – causing death, or serious injury or high risk of death or serious injury involving recklessness. $3 million$600,000 and/or 5 years imprisonment for officers $300,000 and/or 5 years imprisonment for workers or other persons Category 2Offences involving a high risk of death or serious injury without recklessness $1.5 million$300,000 for officers $150,000 for workers or other persons Category 3Less serious offences placing persons at risk of injury or illness $500,000$100,000 for officers $50,000 for workers or other persons
Things to think about Best practice WHS policies, systems, procedures and training Consultation Risk management Robust processes and documentation Support and training for all workers Support and training for officers regarding due diligence requirements Review/check/audit current processes
Questions John Makris | Special Counsel Middletons T: +61 2 9513 2564 E: email@example.com