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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. Tires Wheels Valve stems and cores Lug nuts, studs, and bolts Wheel weights Hub and wheel bearing assemblies.

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Presentation on theme: "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. Tires Wheels Valve stems and cores Lug nuts, studs, and bolts Wheel weights Hub and wheel bearing assemblies."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

2 Tires Wheels Valve stems and cores Lug nuts, studs, and bolts Wheel weights Hub and wheel bearing assemblies

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tires perform two basic functions: act as a soft cushion between the road and the metal wheel provide adequate traction (friction) with the road surface

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pneumatic filled with air internal air pressure pushes out on the inside of the tire to support the vehicle Tubeless tire does not use an inner tube tire and wheel form an airtight unit Tube-type tire uses an inner tube to hold air pressure

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.


7 Measurement of the amount of friction produced as the tire operates on the road surface High rolling resistance increases fuel consumption and wear Rolling resistance is reduced by higher inflation pressure, tire design, and a lighter vehicle

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. There are many design variations: different numbers of plies may be used plies may run at different angles different materials may be used Three types of tires used on automobiles: bias ply belted bias tire radial tire

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Plies run on an angle from bead to bead Angle is reversed from ply to ply Does not use belts Body of the tire flexes easily Provides a smooth ride Plies and tread are weakest reduces traction at high speeds increases rolling resistance

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

11 Bias tire with belts added to increase tread stiffness Belts lie under the tread area only Two stabilizer belts and two or more plies improve tire performance provides a smooth ride and good traction reduces rolling resistance

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

13 Plies run straight across from bead to bead Stabilizer belts lie beneath the tread Belts can be made of steel, flexten, fiberglass, or other materials

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Uses a very flexible sidewall with a stiff tread provides a very stiff footprint improves safety, cornering, braking, and wear may produce a harsher ride at low speeds

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.


17 Alpha-Numeric–Uses letters and numbers to denote tire size in inches and its load- carrying capacity in pounds

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. P-Metric–Uses metric values and international standards

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

20 Height-to-width ratio of a tire. Comparison of a tires height and width

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Amount of weight the tire can carry at the recommended inflation pressure Printed on the sidewall P-metric: given in kilograms and pounds Alpha-numeric: indicated by a letter such as B, C, or D

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Highest air pressure that should be pumped into the tire Many tires have a maximum recommended pressure of 32 to 40 psi (220 to 275 kPa)

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Number of plies and ply rating: 2-ply 2-ply with a 4-ply rating 4-ply Greater number of plies usually indicates a greater load-carrying capacity

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Identifies the manufacturer, plant, location, construction, and date of manufacture Stamped into the sidewall Department of Transportation rating means the tire has passed prescribed safety tests

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tread wear given as a number, 100 to 500 higher number is more resistant to wear Tire traction given as an A, B, or C A rating has the most traction Tire temperature resistance given as an A, B, or C A rating resists temperature buildup best

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maximum allowable sustained road speed a tire can safely withstand without failure Ratings range from B to Z B rating 31mph or 50 km/h Z rating 149 mph or 238 km/h

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. When too much tread has worn away, solid rubber bars will show up across the tread

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. This is a high pressure spare, requiring 60 psi (415 kPa)

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Coating of sealing compound is applied to the liner If a nail punctures the tire, air pressure will push the soft compound into the hole to stop air leakage

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A. Nail punctures tire B. Nail is pulled out C. Sealing compound flows into the hole

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Used tires that have had a new tread vulcanized to the old carcass, or body Large truck tires are often recapped because of the high cost of new truck tires

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Use extremely stiff sidewall construction Still usable with a loss of air pressure Tire will still retain most of its shape because the sidewall is strong enough to support vehicle weight

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

34 Often used with run-flat tires Pressure sensors are mounted on each wheel If tire pressure is not correct, the wheel sensor produces a radio signal Signal is received by a module that turns on a dash warning light

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.


37 Designed to support the tire while withstanding loads from acceleration, braking, and cornering Made of steel, aluminum, or magnesium Lightest weight is desirable to reduce unsprung weight, improving handling

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

39 Aluminum or magnesium wheels are often called mags

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Allows for easier installation and removal of the tire Center of the wheel is smaller in diameter than the rim When installing a tire, it can fall into the recess, then, the other side of the tire bead can be forced over the rim

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Note the smaller diameter in the center of the rim

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

43 Small ridges on the rim hold the tire on the wheel during a tire blowout or flat

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Valve stem pressed into a hole in the wheel of a tubeless tire to allow inflation and deflation Valve core spring-loaded air valve that is threaded into the valve stem Valve cap protects the air valve and stem threads from dirt, moisture, and damage

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Valve stem snaps into the hole in the wheel Press fit forms an airtight seal Valve core screws into the valve stem body

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lug nuts hold the wheel and tire assembly on the vehicle Lug studs special studs that accept the lug nuts Lug bolts used instead of nuts screw into threaded holes in the hub or axle flange

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Stud is pressed into the hub or axle flange If metric or left-hand threads are used, markings will normally be given

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Small lead weights Attached to the wheel rim to balance the wheel-and-tire assembly Used to offset a heavy area of the wheel and tire

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Allow the wheel to turn freely around the spindle, in the steering knuckle, or in the bearing support Most wheel bearings are tapered roller bearings or ball bearing

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lubricated with high-temperature grease

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Balls allow parts to rotate with a minimum amount of friction and wear

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Spindle is stationary, providing a mounting place for the wheel bearings, hub, and wheel Hub is partially filled with grease to lubricate the bearings Nut on the end of the spindle allows adjustment of the bearing preload

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

54 Used on the front of rear-wheel-drive cars or the rear of front-wheel-drive cars

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Axle shaft rotates inside a stationary support Drive shaft fits through the center of the bearings Hub is splined to the axle shaft Ball bearings are lubricated by thick, high- temperature grease

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

57 Commonly used on the front of front-wheel- drive vehicles

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Front drive axle extends through a stationary spindle Special free-wheel, or locking hub transfers power from the axle to the hub- disc assembly when in four-wheel-drive

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Front axle, brakes, hub, and wheel bearing assembly

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