2BellworkSurvey the text and pictures on p.p to introduce you to HinduismThen survey the text and pictures on p.p to introduce you to Buddhism5 Minutes
3Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Roots of HinduismOrigins and BeliefsHinduism Changes and DevelopsHinduism and Society
4Roots of HinduismHinduism is a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over timeIts ritual and practice today is the same as it was centuries agoHindu beliefs are based on the traditions of the Aryans, a group of people who migrated into the Indus River valley in India around 1500 B.C.
5Roots of Hinduism The sacred literature of the Aryans were the Vedas The Vedas were four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing ritualsSometime between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C., Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meanings of the Vedic hymnsThese teachings were later recorded to form the Upanishads
6Origins and BeliefsTo Hindus, religion is a way of freeing the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday existenceThe Upanishads focus on how a person can achieve liberation from desires and sufferingA Hindu achieves moksha when one achieves perfect understanding of all things
7Origins and BeliefsHindus realize this may not be achieved in one lifetime so they believe in reincarnationAn individual’s soul can be reborn again and again until achieving mokshaA soul’s karma – good or bad deeds – follows from one incarnation to another, influencing life circumstances
8Hinduism Changes and Develops Hindus believe in a world soul called BrahmanBrahman is seen as having the personalities of three godsBrahma = creatorVishnu = protectorShiva = destroyerThese aspects of Brahman would often take on other forms resulting in thousands of “versions” of the one world soul
9Hinduism Changes and Develops Today, Hindus are free to choose the deity they worship or to choose none at allThere are also three different paths to achieve mokshaPath of right thinkingPath of right actionPath of religious devotion
10Hinduism and Society Today, even in the most ordinary activities of daily life, Hindus turn totheir religion for guidance.
11RitualEach year, thousands of Hindus make a pilgrimage to India’s Ganges River. TheGanges is considered a sacred site in the Hindu religion. Most Hindus come tobathe in the water, an act they believe will cleanse and purify them. The sickand disabled come in the belief that the holy water might cure their ailments.
12LeadershipGurus, or spiritual teachers, play a major role in spreadingHindu beliefs. These holy men are believed to have had thegods’ words revealed to them. Brahmin priests, like the oneshown here, are also religious leaders. They take care of thedivine images in the temples and read from the sacred books.
13The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Siddhartha’s QuestOrigins and BeliefsBuddhism and SocietyTrade and Spread of Buddhism
14BackstoryBuddhism developed out of the same period of religious questioning that shaped modern HinduismThe founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama was born into a noble family that lived in in the foothills of the Himalayas in NepalAccording to Buddhist legend, the baby exhibited the marks of a great man
15BackstoryA prophecy indicated that if the child stayed at home he was destined to become a world rulerIf the child left home, however, he would become a universal spiritual leaderRead more about this story in Historymakers on page 68 of your textbook
16Siddhartha’s QuestTo foil the prophecy, Siddhartha’s father kept him isolated in the palaceSiddhartha always dreamed of what it was like outside the wallsWhen he was 29, he ventured outside the palace four times
17Siddhartha’s QuestFirst he saw an old man, next a sick man, then a corpse, and finally a wandering holy man who seemed at peace with himself.Siddhartha understood these events to mean that every living thing experiences old age, sickness, and death and that only a religious life offers a refuge from this inevitable suffering.Siddhartha decided to spend his life searching for religious truth and an end to life’s suffering
18Siddhartha’s QuestRead the second paragraph under this heading to discover Siddhartha’s search for enlightenment
19Origins and BeliefsThe Buddha preached his first sermon to five companions who had accompanied him on his wanderingsIn it, he laid out the four main ideas that he had come to understand in his enlightenment.He called those ideas the Four Noble Truths
20Origins and BeliefsFirst Noble Truth Life is filled with suffering and sorrow.Second Noble Truth The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world.Third Noble Truth The way to end all suffering is to end all desires.Fourth Noble Truth The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial
21The Middle WayThe idea was to master one step at a time – often taking more than one lifetime (reincarnation, right?)Read how the Buddha describes the Middle Way on page 69By following the Middle Way one could achieve nirvana, the Buddha’s word for release from selfishness and pain
22Origins and Beliefs The Buddha rejected the many gods of Hinduism Instead, he taught a way of enlightenmentThe final goals of both religions—moksha for Hindus and nirvana for Buddhists—are similarBoth involve a perfect state of understanding and a break from the chain of reincarnations
23▲ Buddhist monks view a temple at Angkor Wat in Cambodia
24Buddhism and SocietyMany of the Buddha’s early followers included laborers and craftspeopleMonks and nuns took vows (solemn promises) to live a life of poverty, to be nonviolent, and not to marryThey wandered throughout India spreading the Buddha’s teachings
25Buddhism and SocietyThe teachings of the Buddha were written down shortly after his deathBuddhist sacred literature also includes commentaries, rules about monastic life, manuals on how to meditate, and legends about the Buddha’s previous reincarnations (the Jatakas)
26LeadershipThose who dedicate their entire life to theteachings of the Buddha are known asBuddhist monks and nuns. In many Buddhistsects, monks are expected to lead a life ofpoverty, meditation, and study. Here,Buddhist monks file past shrines in Thailand.To learn humility, monks must beg for foodand money.
27Trade and Spread of Buddhism As important as missionaries were to the spread of Buddhism, traders played an even more crucial role in this processAlong with their products, traders carried Buddhism beyond India to Sri LankaBuddhist religion was also brought southeast along trade routes to Burma, Thailand, and the island of Sumatra
28Trade and Spread of Buddhism Likewise, Buddhism followed the Central Asian trade routes, called the Silk Roads, all the way to ChinaThe movement of trade thus succeeded in making Buddhism the most widespread religion of East AsiaThroughout human history, TRADE has been a powerful force for the spread of ideasConnect to Today by reading about the spread of Buddhism in the West on page 71