Presentation on theme: "POSC 1000 Introduction to Politics"— Presentation transcript:
1 POSC 1000 Introduction to Politics Unit Seven: Elections and Political Parties (Part Two)Russell Alan Williams
2 Unit Seven: Elections and Political Parties Required Reading: Maclean and Wood, Chap. 7.Outline:IntroductionTypes of PartiesParty Organization and CampaignsParty SystemsIdeological CompetitionStructure of CompetitionInsert a picture of one of the geographic features of your country.
3 1) Introduction:“Political Parties”: Organizations that seek to gain and maintain political powerPlay central role in competition for electoral officeMembers fill positions in legislatureMembers form executive/governmentsMembers raise $$$$ for campaignsOften no “constitutional” role & limited regulation
4 Traditional functions: Recruit candidates and voters to participate in system – the “Recruitment Function”Support new candidatesEnsure voter turnout“Organize the vote” – “Electoral Platforms” Parties take stands on different issues – these platforms are like a “menu” for voters to choose fromEnsure government accountability – meaning ?????People can clearly vote against “the government” by voting against that party – this doesn't work well without parties
5 Commonly seen as harmful to democracy? Purveyors of corruption and “Patronage”: Awarding of key government positions to loyal party supporters.=Controversy!Impede the “will of the people” = undermine accountability=Theme: Are parties in “crisis”?Rod Blagojovich (Illinois) and Tony Clement (Parry Sound – Muskoka)Newfoundland Liberal MPs Scott Simms, left, and Todd Russell vote against Harper budget and break with party
6 2) Types of Parties:“Cadre Party”: Party formed by elite group of politicians in attempt to control legislatureOldest form – emerged from cooperation amongst a parliamentary party “caucus” – the organization of party members in parliamentE.g. the British “Whigs” and “Tories”Unclear link between party officials and the public – no “mass membership”
7 “Mass Party”: Large parties organized based on regular financial contributions from the public – power comes from membership.Less focus on elected members – more emphasis on the Extra-parliamentary Party=”rank and file” or “grassroots” membersParty Convention: Regular meeting of delegates from local constituencies as well as elected representatives and party officials.E.g. British Labour PartyGerman Social Democratic Party
8 Key differences: Challenges: Mass parties are “ideological” Mass parties – ordinary members choose leadersChallenges:Can a cadre party survive consistent defeats?Where are the “Whigs” today?????Can a mass party maintain links to the public?Belief that over time all organizations are gradually dominated by small group of leaders
9 New forms of parties:“Umbrella” or “Catch-all Parties”: Dominant concern is winning elections. Parties try to appeal to a wide range of issues Less ideological.Relies on $$$$$ and professional experts to “market” the party to votersImplication: Focus on leaders & style over ideologyReasons for emergence?“Hot dog stand theory” – modern parties “move to the centre” Ideology only costs you some voters so you should abandon clear stances for broad appealProblem: Are parties fufilling their role if we choose based on the qualities of the leaders etc.??????
10 Other types of parties: Brokerage Party: Party that tries to appeal to broad elements of society by accommodating interests of different groups and regions through deal-makingPromise benefits to different groupsCanadian type of cadre party? = Coalitions of special interestsExamples?
11 Other types of parties: Brokerage Party: Party that tries to appeal to broad elements of society by accommodating interests of different groups through deal-makingPromise benefits to different groupsCanadian type of cadre party? = Coalitions of special interestsExamples?=The Liberal Party of CanadaExample would be Liberals in days gone by. Support for rights for francaphones, public works in Atlantic Canada and support for western resource interestsResponse to Conservative power in Ontario (Big blue machine) – creates an odd coalition that is held together on a non-ideological basis . . .
12 3) Party Organization and Campaigns: Leadership: In most systems, parties choose the head of government by selecting own leaderMethods:Parliamentary party electionBecoming less popularParty convention election - delegates from constituencies choose leader through “run off” ballots“Public spectacle” is popularDirect membership votes - all party members voteU.S. Presidential “primaries”Electronic voting – Problem: leader may not win majority – makes system complicatedInsert a picture of an animal and or plant found in your country.
13 Local candidate selection - Either by: Local “constituency association”Party leader“Parachute candidates” – party insiders and “star” recruitsParty nomination is key!“Independents”: Electoral candidates that do not belong to a party - do not get elected in most systems = lonely loooosersIn SMP, party candidate selection (nomination battles) often more important than elections . . .E.g. “safe seats”In some ridings a dead horse with the right party label could win E.g. a “safe seats”
14 Party “Caucus”: Organization/meeting of all the party’s parliamentary members Closed meetings to discuss strategyEnsures “party discipline”Members vote the “party line” or they must leave caucus=No party support in next electionBig difference between Canada and USDominance of leader over caucus can lead to executive dominance in parliamentary systemInsert a picture of an animal and or plant found in your country.
15 Party Finance:High risk of corruption and inequality = Costs almost $1 billion (US) to run for PresidentMost countries regulate how parties solicit fundsResults of regulation uneven (E.g. U.S. rules)In Canada:Pre 2004 – Public reporting, but no limits on $$$ amount from corporations and individualsBenefited Liberals and ConservativesPost 2004 – Corporate donations capped at $ , individuals at $5,000.00Parties receive gov’t funding = $1.75 for each voteNow?
16 Parties and the vote – why do people vote the way they do? a) Ideological and social factors . . .b) Party Identification: long term psychological attachment to a particular partyE.g. Best predictor of which party someone will vote for is who they voted for in the pastElections mainly about “swing voters” or “independents”Modern parties choose issues to attract swing votersThey also choose some issues to “protect their base”
17 c) Campaign dynamics:The “local team” may have a particular impact“Electoral platforms” may make promises of particular interest to some votersWhat issues become important?E.g. Michael Dukakis and Willie Hortond) The role of leaders – how leaders appear to the public is crucial:The Howard Dean scream: “B’YEEEEH!” LinkThe Ignatieff “rise up” speech. Linke) The role of “negative campaigning” and “Attack adds”: Adds that attack other candidates rather than appeal to voters
18 4) Party Systems:“Party Systems”: Pattern of competition amongst parties in different jurisdictions“One Party System”: A system in which only one party is allowed to participate = not very democraticE.g. “Militia Party”: A common style of one party state, where military elite dominates only recognized party“Competitive Party System”: Liberal democratic political system where citizens can join and organize different parties
19 a) Structure of ideological competition In “Competitive Party Systems”the “structure” of competition amongst parties has big impacts on government . . .a) Structure of ideological competition”Left-Right continuum” – common way to think about party completion
20 E.g. What if the “left” or “right” is split? If parties are ideological, number of parties can really impact electoral outcomes . . .E.g. Canadian Liberal Party “in the Centre”E.g. German Free Democrats always in power Even though they are weakWhere do nationalist/regional parties fit?Where do brokerage and professional parties fit?If parties are ideological, number of parties can really impact electoral outcomes . . .E.g. What if the “left” or “right” is split?Where do nationalist/regional parties fit?Where do brokerage and Catch-all parties fit?
21 b) Structure of party competition: Depends on relevant number of effective partiesAnd,Relative success of those partiesOne Party Dominant: One dominant party, no “government in waiting”Japan, Alberta and NL?“Two Party System”: Two major competitive partiesNormal in “SMP” – US, Australia, UK, most Canadian Provinces
22 Question: Where does Canada fit? Two-Plus Party System: Two competitive parties plus some extra “effective” partiesAdditional party can hold “balance of power”Germany, Ontario“Multiparty System”: More than two parties are “significant” in the struggle for power.Netherlands, France, Israel and places where there is “PR”.Question: Where does Canada fit?
23 In parliament traditionally = Two Party Plus In elections and citizens votes = “Multiparty”Difference is a product of the “electoral system”!
24 5) Conclusions:Citizens are often unaware of how electoral system contributes to party system and responsiveness of governmentCanada has a very complex party system, but the electoral system rewards two party competitionProduces unexpected resultsInsert a picture of an animal and or plant found in your country.
25 6) For next time:Unit Eight: Political Socialization and Culture (March 18 and 20)Required Reading: MacLean and Wood, Chapter 8.Research Papers due, in class, March 18.Insert a picture of an animal and or plant found in your country.