2EssentialQuestion:What role has Ancient Greece had in shaping how the United States is today?
3Enduring Understandings Modern democracy has its roots in ancient Athens.A republican form of government is based on the principle of separation of powers.Many U.S. Government buildings have been influenced by Greek architecture. (Parthenon, U.S. Supreme Court Building)Today's Olympic Games started in Ancient Greece.Maps and globes can be used to locate places in our country and on Earth.
4Table of Contents Geography The Dark Ages Gods and Goddesses City-StatesAncient OlympicsArts and ArchitectureGovernment
6Greece is on the continent of Europe. It is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea.SS3G1.d: Locate Greece on a world map
7Greece is also covered with mountains. Greece is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. Greece is also covered with mountains.Three thousand years ago, it was very difficult to get from place to place in ancient Greece by walking. But it was easy to get from place to place in Greece by boat. The Greeks became known as great sailors.
9The ancient Greeks loved stories The ancient Greeks loved stories During the Grecian Dark Ages, some people became professional storytellers.The storytellers went from town to town, earning a living telling stories. They told the same stories over and over, and they told them in the same language, Greek. It was not long until nearly everyone in ancient Greece knew all the stories by heart. They also knew the Greek language by heart, as it was the language of the storytellers.
10The storytellers told three kinds of stories FablesLegendsMyths
11Aesop’s Fables A fable is a story that ends with a lesson to be learned. Aesop was an ancient Greek storyteller. He lived 2500 years ago, around 550 BCE. Some say he was a slave who so delighted his master with his stories that Aesop was given his freedom. The Greeks were like that. They rewarded talent. That old legend could be true. There are no records to prove that Aesop ever wrote anything down. Fortunately, many years after his death, people started to write down the fables Aesop collected, so they could be more easily shared. Over the centuries, Aesop's fables have been rewritten into almost every language in the world.
12LegendsA legend is a popular story that has been told over and over again about something that happened in the near or far past. To be a legend, there can be no proof that the story is true.Legend saysOnce upon a time, a long time ago, there was an ancient city named Troy. Troy was located on the coast of Asia, across the sea from the Greek city-state of Sparta. In those days, people used to build walls around their city to help protect them. Some walls were only a few feet high. Others as much as twenty feet high! The people built gates in the wall. The gates could be opened to let people inside the city. In times of war, the gates could be closed and locked to stop intruders from getting inside. The walls around Troy were very high and very strong. According to the legend of Trojan Horse, for ten long years, the Greeks had been trying to get over the wall around the city of Troy. But the Greeks could not get over the wall. And the Trojans could not drive the Greeks away. Year after year they fought. And year after year, neither side won. One day, a Greek general, Odysseus, had a tricky idea. "Let's pretend to sail away," he suggested. "We'll leave a gift for Troy, a gift to announce the end of the war, a wooden horse with 30 men hidden inside. At night, these men can sneak out and open the gate of Troy!" That was the way things were done back then. When you admitted defeat, you supplied a gift.
13The Greeks thought it was a brilliant idea The Greeks thought it was a brilliant idea. They had their best artists build the horse. It was a magnificent horse. When it was ready, the Greeks brought the huge wooden horse as close to Troy's city gates as they could get without being shot full of arrows. The Greeks pretended to sail away. When the Trojan archers at the top of the stairs saw the Greeks leaving, they could not believe their eyes. Were the Greeks giving up at last? Had the Trojans won the war? It certainly appeared so! The Trojans dragged the horse inside their city and closed the gates. Some people wanted to burn the horse, which would have been a sad fate for the Greek soldiers hidden inside. But the Trojan people said, "NO! It's too beautiful! We'll keep it forever as a reminder of our victory!" (The Greeks had counted on that reaction. The Greeks might be famous for their art, but the Trojans were famous for their bragging. The Greeks were sure the Trojans would want to display the magnificent horse. Sure enough, that's exactly what happened, or so legend says.) That night, while the Trojan people slept soundly, exhausted from their celebrations, the 30 Greek men hidden inside the wooden horse climbed out and opened the gates of Troy and let the Greek army inside. That was the end of Troy.
14MythsA myth is a story about one or more magical deities. The Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses and magical monsters and mythical animals. The Greek myths are still enjoyed today.Like Hercules, Perseus was part god, part man, and an ancient Greek hero He was the son of an Argive princess and Zeus, the king of all the gods. Persus managed to kill the fearful Medusa, the Gorgon with the hair of snakes, who could turn men into stones! All Greece cheered and honored him. All the gods knew that Hercules was half man and half god. His mother was a mortal. But his father was a king - the king of all the gods, the mighty Zeus. But Hercules did not know he was part god until he had grown into a man. Hercules was incredibly strong, magically strong, even as a baby! Zeus admired strength. He loved his little son. To keep Hercules safe from attack, Zeus sent him to live with a mortal family on earth. Hercules grew up loved and noble. But he didn't fit in on earth. He was too big and too strong. One day, his earth father told him he was a god, well, part god anyway. The rest of the story of Hercules is a series of stories, tasks, and adventures, as Hercules earned his way into the heavens, to take his place with the gods.
16Mount Olympus The Olympian gods were the main gods of Ancient Greece. After overthrowing their ancestors, the Titans, the Olympian gods became the rulers of the World.The Olympian gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece, built by the Cyclopes.The leader of the Olympian gods was Zeus.The gods were born and grew just like human beings, however the never aged and never died.There were twelve Gods of Mount Olympus, but there were more Olympian Gods in Greek Mythology.
17Greek mythology is not really clear whether or not Mount Olympus was a place on earth or in the heavens. But the Greeks did name the tallest mountain peak Mount Olympus.Whenever the council of twelve met, they met on Mount Olympus. Except for Hades, who preferred his home in the underworld, the eleven other Olympians kept a home on Mount Olympus.
18Athena, goddess of wisdom How Athena became the guardian of Athens and Megara
19Artemis, goddess of the hunt Ares, god of war How Artemis and Ares became the guardians of Sparta
20Pegasus, the flying horse Apollo, god of musicPegasus, the flying horseHow Apollo and Pegasus became the guardians of Corinth
30After the Greek dark ages, villages started to bandtogether to form strongtrading centers. These groupsof villages that bandedtogether were called city-states Soon, hundreds of city-states had formed in ancient Greece.TO BE A CITIZEN OF A CITY-STATE: The ancient Greeks referred to themselves as citizens of their individual city-states. Each city-state (polis) had its own personality, goals, laws and customs. Ancient Greeks were very loyal to their city-state.
31The city-states had many things in common The city-states had many things in common. They all believed in the same gods. They all spoke thesame language.But if you asked an ancient Greek where he was from, he would not say, "I live in Greece."If he lived in Athens, he would say, "I am Athenian."If he was from Sparta, he would say, "I am a Spartan."
32And so it went. The city-states might band together to fight aenemy. They also went towar with each other. Greece wasnot yet one country.Ancient Greece was a collection of Greek city-states. The five most powerful were Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Megara, and Argos.
33The city-state of Athens *one of the 2 most powerful Athenians thought of themselves as the shining star of the Greek city-states. They were famed for their literature, poetry, drama, theatre, schools, buildings, and government.The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Athens, the patron was Athens, goddess of wisdom. Perhaps because Athena was their patron, Athenians put a great deal of emphasis on education.
34The city-state of Sparta *one of the 2 most powerful Life was very different in ancient Sparta than it was in the rest of ancient Greek city-states The Spartans were proud, fierce, capable warriors. No great works of art came out of Sparta. But the Spartans, both men and women, were tough, and the Greeks admired strength.In most of the other Greek city-states, the goal of education was to create a strong citizen of that city-state. In Sparta, the goal of education was to create a strong warrior. All of the ancient Greeks were warriors, but Sparta's warriors were legendary.The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Sparta, the patrons were Ares, god of war and Artemis, goddess of the hunt.
35The city-state of Corinth As a coastal city-state, Corinth had a glorious history as a cultural and trade center. Corinth was a monarchy. The people were ruled by a king. The king had many advisors. Together, Corinth's government solved many problems that face cities today. The government of Corinth created its own coinage. They forced traders to exchange their coins for Corinth's coinage at the bank of Corinth, for a fee of course. Corinthians were very good with money.The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Corinth, the patron was Apollo, god of music and Pegasus, the flying horse.
36The city-state of Argos The ancient city-state of Argos had a nearby harbor for trade and commerce. But Argos was located on a plain. The weather was hot and dry in the summer, and cold and wet in the winter. The soil was not especially good. The people of Argos had to fight to grow food.Argos was actively involved in the arts. Their magnificent stone sculptures of athletes were the envy of many a Greek city-state. Argos was famous for their wonderful musicians, poets and drama. Their government was a monarchy - Argos was ruled by a king.The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Corinth, the patron was Hera, queen of the gods.
37The city-state of Megara Megara was a highly respected city-state in ancient Greece. As a coastal city-state, their history was similar to Corinth's, their neighbor.Like Athens, Megara offered its citizens a great deal of freedom. Like nearly all Greek city-states, Megara had beautiful temples, gorgeous statues, and open-air theatres. They were famous for their glorious textiles, which were the envy of other Greek city-state.The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Megara, the patron was Hera, queen of the gods.
39The Olympic Games began over ,700 years ago in Olympia, in southwest Greece. The Games were part of a religious festival The Greek Olympics, thought to have begun in 776 BC, inspired the modern Olympic Games (begun in 1896) The Games were held in honour of Zeus, king of the gods, and were staged every four years at Olympia, a valley near a city called Elis. People from all over the Greek world came to watch and take part.
40Everyone wanted their city-state to win! The ancient Greeks loved competitions of all sorts, especially sporting competitions. The Olympics were notthe only competition games held in ancient Greece, but they were the most popular.In truth, the Greeks took the games quite seriously. Nearly all the ancient Greek cities sent teams to participate in the ancient Greek Olympics. Everyone wanted their city-state to win!
41You are a Spartan!Be proud! You have endured unbelievable pain and hardship to become a superior Spartan soldier and citizen! Taken away from your parents at age 7, you lived a harsh and often brutal life in the soldiers barracks. You were beat up by older children who started fights to help make you tough and strong, but never cried out in pain. You were given very little food, but encouraged to steal food, instead. If caught stealing, you were beat up. To avoid severe pain, you learned to be cunning, to lie, to cheat, to steal, and how to get away with it! You are fierce, capable, and proud of your strength.You know you are superior and are delighted to be Spartan!
42Spartan goals and behavior at the Olympics! Win at all costs. Lie, cheat, do whatever it takes. If you can't win, at least beat your archrival, those silly citizens of Athens. You are the proud and fierce Spartans! Plot secretly with other Greek city-states to sabotage any Athenian chance at victory. Cheer only for your fellow Spartans at each event. Lie, cheat, steal, but do not get caught, because that is the Spartan way.Good luck at the games!
43You are a Athenian!Be courteous. You have been superbly educated in the arts and the sciences, and trained to be extremely productive and capable in times of peace or war. You are an achiever. You learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, math, and perhaps even how to play the flute. At 18, you attended military school for two additional years! You are proud to be an Athenian! Famed for its literature, poetry, drama, theatre, schools, buildings, government, and intellectual superiority, you have no doubt that your polis,Athens, is clearly the shining star of all the Greek city-states.
44Athenian goals and behavior at the Olympics! You know your archrival, those horrible Spartans, will do anything to win, even lie and cheat, but you are Athenians - you would never stoop to such bad behavior. Cooperate with your fellow Athenians to defeat those brutish Spartans, and do your personal best! You are Athenians, the clever, creative, courteous representatives of that shining example of all that is fine and noble, the polis of Athens.Good luck in the games!
45You are a Corinthian!As a coastal city-state, you have a glorious history as a cultural and trade center Although your schools are not as fine, perhaps, as those of Athens, you have been educated in the arts and the sciences. You also went to military school for at least two years. Your polis is famous for its bronze statues, pottery, and vase painters. You are creative problem-solvers. Literature, culture, art, and businesses thrive in your city-state.You are proud to be a practical, productive Corinthian!
46Corinthian goals and behavior at the Olympics! If you can't win, help Argos and Megara to defeat those vain Athenians, and those animals, the Spartans. Do what it takes, but be honest about it. You cheer the winner of each event. You greet your fellow Corinthians with warmth and good sportsmanship whenever you see them. You are proud of your abilities, your achievements, your honesty, and your obviously superior city-state.Good luck in the games!
47You are an Argive!You have been educated in the arts and the sciences, and trained to be productive and capable in times of peace or war. You have much of which to be proud. Your magnificent stone sculptures of athletes, rippling with muscle, are the envy of many a Greek city-state. You are famous for your wonderful musicians and poets. Drama reached new heights in your polis. Plays are performed in open-air theatres, drawing crowds of 20,000 or more Argive citizens! Unfortunately, you have a problem. When Athens and Sparta asked your polis to send supplies and troops to fight the Persians, after the battle of Thermopylae in 480 BCE, you refused. For this decision, you are held in disgrace by the other Greek city-states.
48Argive goals and behavior at the Olympics! Your goal is to reverse the negative reputation you currently hold in the ancient Greek world. You will have to work hard to convince other city-states that your athletes, soldiers, scholars, orators, architects, poets, dancers, and artists are as fine, if not superior, to the other city-states. You cheer Argive victories, and win as many events as you can. Your goal is to make sure that Athens and Sparta don't win at all. (Your plan is to throw your support to Corinth or Megara toward the end of the competition if it appears you can not win.) You are Argives, hard-working, honest, loyal, clever, creative, courteous representatives of Argos, and of her glorious past.Good luck in the games!
49You are an Megarian!Be proud that you are a Greek and come from such a respected city-state as Megara. You believe your schools are as fine as those of Athens, although you have no doubt that any Athenian would disagree. You have been trained in the arts and the sciences where you memorized poetry and studied drama, public speaking, reading, writing, science, poetry, the flute, the lyre, and a great deal of mathematics. Like most Megarians, you love money and have been trained to be an excellent accountant. Your polis is famous for its glorious textiles, which are the envy of other Greek city-states. Literature, culture, art, and businesses thrive in your city-state. You believe you offer your citizens even more freedom than Athens.You are proud of your city-state's past and present achievements, and proud to be a Megarian!
50Megarian goals and behavior at the Olympics! If you can't win, help Argos and Corinth to defeat those boastful Athenians and those militant fanatics, the Spartans. If it comes down to Athens or Sparta, cheer for Sparta, loudly. (They might be militant, but those are good friends to have in time of war! Besides, you are tired of hearing about wonderful Athens.) You are Megarians, proud of your history, your flourishing businesses, your world famous textiles, your freedoms, your schools, your coastal advantage - your rich and vibrant city-state, Megara.Good luck in the games!
51Where did the Olympic games come from? There are many stories about the beginning of the Olympics.One myth is that the guardians of the god Zeus held the first footraces to celebrate his victory over his father to control the world.Another myth is that after the Greek hero Pelops won a chariot race to marry a princess the games began with chariot races, footraces, discus matches, wrestling, and boxing.
52Why were they held in Olympia? Olympia was one of the oldest religious centers in the ancient Greek world. Since athletic contests were one way that the ancient Greeks honored their gods, it was logical to hold a recurring athletic competition at the site of a major temple.Also, Olympia is convenient geographically to reach by ship, which was a major concern for the Greeks.An international truce among the Greeks was declared for the month before the Olympics to allow the athletes to reach Olympia safely.
53What were the events at the Ancient Olympics? At the first one-day Olympic Games, the only event was a short sprint from one end of the stadium to the other.Gradually more events were added to make four days of competitions. They included wrestling, boxing, long jump, throwing the javelin and discus, and chariot racing.In the pentathlon, there were five events: running, wrestling, javelin, discus and long jump.
54What prizes did the victors get? A victor received a crown made from olive leaves, and was entitled to have a statue of himself set up at Olympia.Although he did not receive money at the Olympics, the victor was treated much like a modern sports celebrity by his home city.His success increased the fame and reputation of his community in the Greek world.
55SS3H1.a: Identify the influence of Greek architecture (columns on the Parthenon, U.S. Supreme Court building), law, and the Olympic Games on the present.
56Who had the best architecture? The ancient Greeks loved beauty, music, literature, drama, philosophy, politics and art. There was an ongoing competition between city-states as to which city-state had the best statues and the most beautiful temples.The ancient Greeks made statues of perfect people.The ancient Greeks invented three types of columns that were used all over ancient Greece. The columns were placed to support a building, but also adjusted in size and angle and in footage from each other, so that from a distance, the columns looked perfectly symmetrical.
57The Ancient Greeks invented 3 types of Columns DoricIonicCorinthian
58The Doric Column is the most plain. The capital (the top, or crown) made of a circle topped by a square.The shaft (the tall part of the column) is plain and has 20 sides.There is no base.
60The Ionic Column is famous for its scrolls. The capital (the top, or crown) consist of scrolls above the shaft.The shaft (the tall part of the column) were taller than Doric ones. They also had flutes, which are lines carved into them from top to bottom The bases were large and looked like a set of stacked rings.
62The Corinthian Column is the most decorative. The shaft (the tall part of the column)has flutes and the bases were large and looked like a set of stacked rings.The capital (the top, or crown) has flowers and leaves below a small scroll.
64SS3H1.b: Explain the ancient Athenians' idea that a community should choose its own leaders.
65The Ancient Greeks had 3 main forms of government. MonarchyOligarchyDemocracy
66MonarchyRule by a king.One city-state whose government was a monarchy was the city-state of Corinth.
67Oligarchy Rule by a small group. One city-state whose government was a oligarchy was the city-state of Sparta.
68Around 510 BCE - The Ancient Athenians Invented Democracy
69Democracy Rule by the citizens, voting in an assembly. One city-state whose government was a democracy for about 100 years was the city-state of Athens.
70Over 2400 years ago, the famous Greek general, Pericles, said, "It is true that we (Athenians) are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not the few, with equal justice to all alike in their private disputes."
71Only in Athens, and only for a short time, "rule by many“ meant that all citizens had to be willing to take an active part in government That was the law!Each year, 500 names were drawn from all the citizens of Athens. Those 500 citizens had to serve for one year as the law makers of ancient Athens. All citizens of Athens were required to vote on any new law that this body of 500 citizens created. One man, one vote, majority ruled.
72Types of DemocracyA Direct Democracy: A government in which people vote to make their own rules and laws .A Representative Democracy: A government in which people vote for representatives. The representatives make rules and laws that govern themselves and the people.SS3H1.c: Compare and contrast Athens as a direct democracy with the United States as a representative democracy.