4The City of AthensAthens was the largest city in Greece.There were about 40,000 men and 40,000 slaves.Athens controlled the land around it, a large region called Attika.Between the many mountains were fertile valleys, where farmers grew olives, grain, fruit and grapes.There were also deposits of silver, lead and marble.
5The City of SpartaSparta was smaller than Athens.There were about 8,000 Spartans men who ruled over a population of 100,000 slaves.
6Athenian RuleIn 510 BC a new way of government was invented in Athens.It was called a 'democracy', which means 'ruled by the people'.Any man with full citizen rights could go to the assembly, where they could speak and vote freely.Public debates like this decided how the city was run.
7The Spartan RuleUsually called as an "oligarchy" which means ruled by a few.But it was a mixture of:Monarchy which means ruled by kings.Democracy which means ruled by the people.Aristocracy which means ruled by the upper class or land owning class.
8Women in AthensWomen did not have citizen rights.They could only go out to weddings, funerals, religious festivals and to visit female friends.In wealthy families girls were educated to run the household of servants and slaves, and were usually married by the age of 13.In poorer families women worked alongside men, farming in the fields or running the family business.
9Women in SpartaWomen were allowed more freedom in Sparta because most of their husbands were soldiers living away from home.They were allowed to leave the house and go shopping.
10The Lives of SlavesThere were slaves in both Athens and Sparta.These were men and women captured in wars or born into slavery.Many slaves had special skills, such as nurses and teachers, while others had the hardest and most unpleasant work to do.It was common for a rich household to have many slaves.Some slaves were owned by the state and were used as a kind of police force
11Education in AthensUntil age 6 or 7, boys were taught at home by their mother or by a male slave.They boys learnt the poetry of Homer and how to play the lyre.Their teacher, who was always a man, could choose what other subjects he wanted to teach.He might choose to teach drama, public speaking, government, art, reading, writing, maths and the flute.Books were expensive and rare, so lessons were read out-loud, and the boys had to memorize everything.
12They were taught to read and write the Greek alphabet. They didn’t have books to write in. Instead, they use a wax tablet, and wrote on this with a metal 'pen'. The pen had a sharp end and a rounded end.They wrote with the sharp end, and then rubbed out the work with the rounded end.
13At 14 boys attended a higher school for four more years. When they turned 18, they entered military school for two additional years.At age 20, they graduated.Girls were not educated at school, but many learned to read and write at home.
14Education in SpartaIn Sparta, education was to produce an army.Spartan boys were sent to military school at age 6 or 7.They lived, trained and slept in the barracks of their brotherhood.At school, they were taught survival skills and other skills necessary to be a great soldier.
15School was very hard and often painful School was very hard and often painful. The boys were taught to read and write but those skills were not seen as important. Only warfare mattered.The boys were not fed well, and were told that it was fine to steal food as long as they did not get caught stealing. If they were caught, they were beaten.They boys marched without shoes to make them strong.
16Somewhere between the age of 18-20, Spartan males had to pass a difficult test of fitness, military ability, and leadership skills.If they passed, they became a full citizen and a Spartan soldier.Spartan citizens were not allowed to touch money. That was the job of the middle class.
17Even if they were married, they did not live with their wives and families. They lived in the barracks.Military service did not end until a Spartan male reached the age of 60.Only then could a Spartan soldier retire and live in their home with their family.
18In Sparta, girls also went to school at age 6 or 7. They lived, slept and trained in their sisterhood's barracks.The girls were taught wrestling, gymnastics and combat skills.The Spartans believed that strong young women would produce strong babies.At age 18, if a Sparta girl passed her skills and fitness test, a husband would be chosen for her and she was allowed to return home.
19What was it like to be a Spartan? Taken away from your parents at age 7, you lived a harsh and often brutal life in the soldiers barracks.You were beaten by older children who started fights to help make you tough and strong.You were often were whipped in front of groups of other Spartans, including your parents, but never cried out in pain.You were given very little food, but encouraged to steal food, instead. If caught stealing, you were beaten.To avoid severe pain, you learned to be cunning, to lie, to cheat, to steal, and how to get away with it!
20Spartan Goals And Behavior At The Olympics Win at all costs.Lie, cheat, do whatever it takes.If you can't win, at least beat those citizens of Athens.You are the proud and fierce Spartans!March in step whenever possible. Plot secretly with other Greek city-states to sabotage any Athenian chance at victory.Cheer only for your fellow Spartans at each event.Good luck at the games!
21What it was like to be an Athenian! Be polite.You have had a good education.Until age 6 or 7, you were taught at home by your mother, or by a male slave.From age 7-14, you attended a day school in the neighborhood where you memorized poetry and learned to play the lyre.You learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, maths, and perhaps even how to play the flute.You attended four years of higher school, and learned more about maths and science and government.At 18, you attended military school for two additional years!You are proud to be an Athenian!
22Athenian Goals And Behavior At The Olympics You know those Spartans, will do anything to win, even lie and cheat.But you are Athenians - you would never behave like that.Cooperate with your fellow Athenians to defeat those brutish Spartans, and do your personal best!Be polite to all Greeks, no matter what city they represent.You are Athenians clever, creative and politeGood luck in the games!