Anaerobic Digestion in a Diagram Image courtesy of Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM)
What is Biogas? It is similar to natural gas. It is 50-70% methane. The remainder is carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Methane is the important product. It can be burned as fuel, just like natural gas.
What are the benefits of Biogas? Sanitation and hygiene Fuel and electricity Reduces indoor air pollution Reduces deforestation and cuts CO2 emissions. Fertilizer Image courtesy of SKG Sangha/The Ashden Awards
Small scale biogas digesters Image courtesy of Dr.-Ing. Arquitecta Joana Forte – Nepal 2011
What do you put in? Images courtesy of Practical Action
How much biogas is produced? It depends on what you put in Image courtesy of Smith (DFID) 10
Human Waste C/N RatioHydraulic Retention Time Duck dropping8Human waste55 days Human Excreta8Cow/Buffalo Dung45 days Chicken dropping10 Goat dung12Low C/N ratio Low gas production Pig dung18(Need 3 times the plant size to produce Sheep dung19same amt of biogas as cow dung) Cow/Buffalo dung24 Water Hyacinth25High HRT Less amount required Elephant dung43for feeding into plant Maize stalk60 Rice straw70WASH solution – HYBRID PLANT Wheat straw90Cow dung for biogas production Saw dust200Human waste for sanitation
How much biogas is produced? 13-158-106-85-63-4 Stove usage (hrs/day) 12080644832 Daily Cow Dung Required (kg) 4.803.202.561.921.28 Gas Production (m3/day) 15m 3 10m 3 8m 3 6m 3 4m 3 Size of Digester
What does this mean? Image Courtesy of Practical Action
What does this mean? Rural Scale: dung from 2-4 cows (or 5-10 pigs) can produce enough gas for all a family’s cooking, and sometimes their lighting, too. Urban Scale: A family or community using just their own food waste can replace between 25% and 50% of their cooking fuel. Large-scale: electricity can be generated for many families or whole communities.
Variations on Biogas Installations The following slides will demonstrate the wide variety of biogas systems currently being used around the world. The major variables are: 1.Size of the installation. 2.Materials used to create the installation. 3.Amount of pressure created within the system.
Sano Khokana, Kathmandu Valley, Lalitpur, Nepal Images courtesy of Prakash Chandra Amatya
Floating Dome Biogas Plant Image courtesy of Ashden Awards Images courtesy of Practical Action and Ashden Awards
BIOTECH, India In households and institutions, biogas plants handle kitchen waste and sometimes have toilets connected – Biogas is used for cooking, displacing about 50% of LPG use. Larger systems used at markets, municipal sites, schools and hostels generate enough e lectricity for lighting Images courtesy of Ashden Awards
Loowatt A new customizable toilet that allows the toilet owner to also have an energy source Image courtesy of Loowatt
Flexible Balloon Biogas Plant Images courtesy of SSWM
Low-Cost Polyethylene Tube Digester Images courtesy of Energypedia
Assess Community Need If you are working with a community that has a waste disposal problem, biogas may be a helpful solution. Work with your community to determine: 1.What types of waste are is the community producing? 2. What quantities of this waste is the community producing? 3.Is the community interested in transforming this waste into useful energy and fertilizer?