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The Great War (World War I) “The War to End All Wars”

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War (World War I) “The War to End All Wars”"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Great War (World War I) “The War to End All Wars”

3 “The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible.” -George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

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5 Causes of War Nationalism—sense of pride and loyalty to a nation ex. uniting ethnic peoples living in other areas, flags, boundaries, songs, etc Imperialism—quest for colonies (territory and raw materials) and extending one’s power across the world ex. Territorial rivalries included Russia desiring a warm water port, the French wanting land (rich in coal and iron) back from Germany, overseas possessions in Africa, Asia and the Middle East

6 Causes of War Militarism—glorification of armed strength, arms race, rapid industrialization Alliances—involved treaties in which members agreed to aid each other if attacked by an outside power ex. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, Russia

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8 The Spark 28 June 1914—Assassination of Archduke Francis (Franz) Ferdinand (heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) and his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia (province in the Empire)

9 War Begins In a complex chain of events: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary Germany declared war on Russia and France Great Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary Italy remained neutral until 1915 (when they joined Great Britain and France)

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11 Alliances Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkey) U.S. originally remained neutral

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13 War in Europe war of attrition—each side tried to wear down the other side through constant attacks trench warfare—400 miles on the Western Front were dug out, armies fought from behind fixed fortifications. heavy artillery fire followed by a charge across the territory in between—no-man’s land. barbed wire, land mines, enemy’s bullets unsanitary conditions: flooding, rats, and lice. Territory gained between was only a few miles.

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15 American Intervention 28 million Americans (almost 30%) were immigrants or children of immigrants. German submarine warfare destroyed ships with American passengers: Lusitania Wilson threatened to cut diplomatic ties with Germany. They responded with the Sussex pledge: promise to not sink ships without warning. Germans asked Mexico to form an alliance against the U.S. in exchange for reconquering lost territories in America.

16 Zimmerman Note

17 Involvement The U.S. entered the war in April 1917 on the side of the Allied Powers. American Expeditionary Force (AEF): led by General John J. Pershing, pushed the German army back in ne/launch_ani_western_front.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwo ne/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

18 War at Home Taxes were raised War bonds were sold Americans were asked to reduced their food and fuel consumption Business and government worked together--boards and agencies regulated production and prices

19 Selective Service Act required men age to register (later changed to 18-45). By the end of the war: 24 million had registered 2.8 million were drafted 4.8 million had served

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37 War at Home (cont.) War propaganda: films, posters, pamphlets, etc. to portray the war as a good vs. evil battle Committee on Public Information (CPI)— used an intense propaganda campaign to “sell” the war to Americans Anti-German sentiment

38 War at Home (cont.) New jobs were created Women working grew by 6% and 1.5 million worked in industry Labor shortage gave opportunities to Mexicans and African American workers Great Migration ( ) of African Americans--hundreds of thousands moved from the South to northern cities

39 War at Home (cont.) Censorship of the press Espionage Act and Sedition Act made opposition to the war a crime

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41 Armistice (cease-fire) League of Nations—international body designed to prevent wars Other leaders were more concerned with punishing Germany Big Four: Wilson David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Vittorio Orlando

42 The Big Four

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44 Plan for Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points— intense and idealistic vision of world peace self-determination—the right of people to govern themselves Other points dealt with secret diplomacy, the arms race, violations of freedom of the seas, and trade barriers

45 Treaty of Versailles compromise Germany blamed for war, forced to pay billions of dollars in reparations New nations created/re-established: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania France reclaimed Alsace-Lorraine League of Nations established

46 Treaty of Versailles U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty— opposition to League and possible U.S. involvement in future foreign conflicts Wilson suffered stroke

47 Cost of War 113,000 U.S. soldiers died (51,000 battle, 62,000 disease) $33,000,000,000 total cost to U.S. 10,000,000 total dead


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