Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation BELLS! Martin Luther believed that God grace was won by ________ Alone, not by good works Faith The belief that God has determined."— Presentation transcript:
BELLS! Martin Luther believed that God grace was won by ________ Alone, not by good works Faith The belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved and who will be Damned –Predestination. Which King becomes “Supreme Head of the Church of England” –King Henry VIII A government in which church and state are joined; officials are considered divinely inspired –Theocracy G Who is famous for starting the Protestant Reformation? –Martin Luther Protestants are followers of Christian faith, independent of Who? –The Catholic Church When a person is formally excluded from Catholic church membership. –Excommunication A religious observance or holy tradition –Sacrament A pardon which released a sinner from their penance Indulgence The agreement which formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany –Peace of Augsburg H h
Background - Early Reformers John Wycliffe (1324-1384) –Interested in authority of clergy. –People should be able to interpret and read the Bible on their own. –Lived during Western Schism (more than one pope). This caused questioning about Papal Authority.
Early Reformers Cont… Jan Hus (1369-1415) –He wanted Bishops elected and not appointed by Pope. –At the Council of Constance, he made his case but he was burned at the stake for his beliefs. The last words of John Hus were that, “in 100 years, God will raise up a man whose calls for reform cannot be suppressed.” Almost exactly 100 years later, in 1517, Martin Luther nailed his famous 95 Theses.
Early Reformers Cont… Erasmus (1466-1536) –“Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” –Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church from within. –Wrote “The Praise of Folly”: which ridiculed the church, corrupt officials, and Clergy…Familiar? –He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will Some Protestant Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination.
REVIEW - The Printing Press! Important Development that aids the process to Reformation! - Books are now available to the masses not just the rich! (Faster production=cheaper books) Printing Press = 3,600 pages per workday Hand Printing = 40 pages per workday
Setting the stage: By the tenth century, the Roman Catholic Church dominated religious life in Northern and Western Europe. Renaissance values let to people to question the Church People felt that Church leaders were too interested in worldly (secular) pursuits, such as gaining wealth and political power
Setting the Stage Monarchs (kings) and leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged the Church authority as the supreme power in Europe Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the Church Many priests and monks were poorly educated, illiterate, and couldn’t teach people Clergy married or had mistresses, drank, and gambled Pope Alexander VI admitted that he had fathered several children
What is the Protestant Reformation? Protestant Reformation- a movement of Religious Reform in the 1500’s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches. People “Protested” the power of the Catholic church. Any Christian faith independent of the catholic church is considered Protestant.
What happens to spark the Reformation? Pope Leo X (Medici) needs money to build St. Peter’s Basilica…so he sells indulgences! –Indulgences- A pardon which released a sinner from their penance - When a catholic sins, they perform a penance (penalty a priest imposed for sins) to show they’re sorry for their sin. Determines how quickly someone can enter heaven. The indulgence is purchased to excuse the sinner from any penalty = People could buy forgiveness!
Language Barriers Most uneducated people didn’t understand Latin, but knew the local common language or “vernacular”. –Almost all Bibles were written in LATIN before the Reformation. It was the job of the church clergy to translate the Bible to lay people.
Martin Luther Luther was a German monk and professor of theology (religion) at the University of Wittenberg in the German state of Saxony. Figurehead of the Protestant Reformation. Luther translates the Bible into German and believes that all people should be able to interpret the Bible for themselves!
Martin Luther and the Reformation Luther took a stand against the selling of indulgences to pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome The 95 Theses were formal statements attacking “pardon- merchants”
Luther’s 95 Theses October 31, 1517, the 95 Theses were nailed to a church door. They were written in Latin. –Luther’s intention: NOT TO BREAK WITH CHURCH, BUT REFORM IT! –Criticized the following: 1.Indulgences 2.Power of Pope 3.Wealth of Church God’s Grace won by FAITH ALONE! –Catholic View: Good Works (Link)(Link)
Luther’s Position on… Grace: the love and mercy given by God, because He desires us to have it, not because we Do anything to earn it Sacraments: He believed there were way too many. Luther wanted only baptism and communion –(A sacrament is a religious observance or holy tradition. The sacrament of communion is also known as the Eucharist.)
Luther’s Position on… Salvation: Good deeds were not necessary for salvation, Only belief and faith in Jesus Christ. The Clergy: Priests could marry and were not needed to interpret the Bible because all people with faith were equals Teaching: Church teachings should be based on the Bible not the Pope or Church traditions, which could be corrupt or false Martin Luther’s actions began the Reformation
Caricature of Pope Alexander VI by Martin Luther, 1545
Excommunication In 1520 Pope Leo X (What Family?) excommunicated Luther, after he demanded Luther recant his statements and Luther burned his request. –Excommunication- expelled him from the church. –In order to suppress the rise and writings of Luther, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issues Edict of Worms ---> declared Luther an outlaw and heretic and no one was to give him food or shelter
Excommunication -Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther ---> While there Luther translated the New Testament into German - In 1522 Luther returned to Wittenberg and his followers became known as Lutherans -The princes in Germany that supported Luther banded together to protest against those who were against Luther’s ideas, became known as Protestants
Peasants War is stirred by Renaissance and Reformation ideas. –Luther is connected with this revolt even though he denounces it. Local Lutheran Princes go to war with Holy Roman Emperor. The end to this religious warfare in Germany came with the Peace of Augsburg. This agreement formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany. It allowed German Princes to choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism; the religion that his subjects would practice.
Anabaptist Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland –Does not believe infants should be baptized because they aren’t aware yet –People should interpret the Bible themselves –All people are equal and the government should not interfere. –Modern Anabaptists: Amish, Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites Sets up a Theocracy - A government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired. Wars over religion dominated Europe concluding with the 30 years war.
Anti-Catholic Influenced by Martin Luther Disagreed with Luther’s “Salvation through faith alone.” Created his own Protestant religion in Switzerland Calvinism
Predestination. The main difference between Luther and Calvin was the doctrine of Salvation through Predestination Calvin believed the Bible said God chose in advance who would receive salvation (the Elect) and at birth it was decided if you will go to heaven or hell. No one really knew who was the Elect, so you must work hard and do more good to show you were Elect.
Foreknowledge Predestination lends to the idea of Foreknowledge - God knows everything that will happen in your life. Calvinism brought a Purified approach to life characterized by: Strict discipline, hard work, and No drinking, swearing, card playing, gambling etc...
Dedication to God’s Law: Sign of Salvation Calvinists assumed that only unfailing dedication to God’s law could be seen as a sign of salvation. Calvinism made for stern men and women, active in their congregations and willing to suppress vice in themselves and others.
In England, the Reformation began with the King! Henry VIII became king at age 17 Devout Catholic Wrote angry protests against Luther’s ideas Actions won him title “Defender of the Faith” By 1525, Henry had only one child, Mary…He Wants A Male Heir! Tried to Divorce his wife “Catherine of Aragon” in fear that would not provide him that Heir.
Oh Henry… King Henry believed a female monarch would weaken England. Since Divorces were frowned upon in the Church he Sought an Annulment. The Pope had the power to Annul marriages, to declare them invalid, but refused to in King Henry’s case for political reasons. To get his way, Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church and establishes himself as the head of the “Church of England”
The Reformation in England Henry Takes Over Reformation Parliament declared that England no longer considered itself under authority of pope Act of Supremacy Subjects were required to take an oath declaring Henry VIII to be “Supreme Head of the Church of England” Church of England Henry hardly changed any rituals of Church Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to nobles This built more public support for split from Catholic Church (LINK)(LINK)
The Wives! Catherine of AragonCatherine of Aragon, 1 st Wife. Princess of Spain. Determined to stay married to Henry, but loses. Anne BoleynAnne Boleyn, 2 nd wife, and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Did not provide a Male Heir, was coincidently brought up on charges of Treason and Beheaded. Jane SeymourJane Seymour, 3 rd wife. Jane gave Henry his male heir (Edward) after one year of marriage, died during Labor
More Wives! Anne of ClevesAnne of Cleves, 4 th wife. This German princess served as Queen for only a few months before she and Henry agreed to divorce by mutual consent. Katherine HowardKatherine Howard, 5 th wife. Brought him happiness for 2 years but was Beheaded on the grounds of treason for committing adultery while married to the King. Katherine ParrKatherine Parr, 6 th Queen. Renaissance woman outlived three husbands, including Henry, and went on to finally marry the man of her choice.
Longstanding Effects of Henry VIII His legitimate children: Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward (dies). –Queen Mary I or “Bloody Mary” Raised Catholic like her mother Catherine of Aragon; she reestablished the Catholic Church in England. She killed many protestants and had approximately 300 heretics burned at the stake. –Queen Elizabeth I (Ends the House of Tudor) Raised Protestant and ruled England for 44 years. Ruled during the Spanish Armada, and never married…known as the Virgin Queen.