Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Spreads John Calvin Background John Calvin most important Protestant reformer next to Martin Luther Educated in France, influenced by."— Presentation transcript:
The Reformation Spreads
John Calvin Background John Calvin most important Protestant reformer next to Martin Luther Educated in France, influenced by Erasmus, Renaissance humanists Supported reforms of Luther in Germany
“May little chickens dig out your eyes 100,000 times.” - Calvin speaking to another reformer whose ideas he disagreed with
Anti-Catholic Influenced by Martin Luther Disagreed with Luther’s “Salvation through faith alone.” Created his own Protestant religion in Switzerland
Calvin believed in: Salvation through Predestination At birth it is decided if you will go to heaven or hell
Foreknowledge God knows everything that will happen in your life Purified approach to life: No drinking, swearing, card playing, gambling etc..
Dedication to God’s Law: Sign of Salvation Calvinists assumed that only unfailing dedication to God’s law could be seen as a sign of salvation. Calvinism made for stern men and women, active in their congregations and willing to suppress vice in themselves and others.
Started in Switzerland – Calvinists England = Puritans Scotland = Presbyterians Holland = Dutch Reform France = Huguenots Germany = Reform Church
Puritan Hugeunots Presbyterian
Revolutionaries: Right to Revolt Calvinism could also produce revolutionaries willing to defy any authorities perceived to be in violation of God’s laws. For Calvinists, obedience to Christian law became the dominating principle of life.
Anabaptists Believed that infants shouldn’t be baptized because they aren’t aware yet –Some wanted to abolish private property –Some resorted to violence to push beliefs Most supported toleration / separation of Church and State
Protestantism Spreads to England A King’s Protest 1509, Henry VIII became king, age 17 Devout Catholic Wrote angry protests against Luther’s ideas Actions won him title “Defender of the Faith” By 1525, Henry had only one child, Mary Annulment Henry wanted male heir, thought female monarch would weaken England Decided to have marriage to Catherine annulled Pope would not agree to annulment
The Reformation in England Henry Takes Over Reformation Parliament declared that England no longer considered itself under authority of pope Henry became head of Church of England Church of England Henry changed rituals of church very little Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to nobles This built more public support for split from Catholic Church
The Reformation in England 1547 Henry dies / Edward becomes king but dies young / Mary, a Catholic becomes queen and persecutes Protestants 1558 Mary dies & Elizabeth becomes Queen and creates a compromise
If you were the head of the Catholic Church at this time, how would you respond?
# of followers CatholicProtestant (Lutheran, Anglican, etc.) 1500 A.D.1560 A.D.1600 A.D.
The Counterreformation Counter (verb): To go against
The Catholic Church wanted to stop the spread of Protestantism. It was losing followers which meant it was losing money. They refocused on strictly following the commands and rules of the Church.
The Jesuits A group of Catholics who followed Church rules obsessively. Penance (working off sins) was a key teaching. They hoped this would help remove the corruption but not ruin the church.
The Council of Trent Catholic bishops gathered to make some changes. 1. No more selling indulgences (still have them, just can’t sell them) 2. Bishops must live near their church.
The Missionaries The churches were now competing for members. Each sent missionaries around the world to find new converts. This lead to “discovering” America and new relationships with Japan.
Protestant Catholic Protestant England settled in what is now the United States. Catholic Spain and France settled in what is now Mexico and South America.
Things to Remember 1.Problems in the church like selling indulgences led to the Reformation. 2.Martin Luther and others argued that God provided salvation, not the church.
Church Differences: Protestant vs Catholic
Protestant Catholic -Jesus lived, was crucified and resurrected. -Communion and baptism are very important -Jesus offers salvation but you must work to get it. -Salvation is. the free gift of God, you cannot earn it. -Popes can forgive sins. -Only God can forgive sins - Regular church members help make decisions. -Only clergy make decisions in the church.