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FIRST ROMANS Ancestors of Romans migrated into central Italy around 1000 BC – Settled near ford in the Tiber River Italian tribes inhabited other regions.

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Presentation on theme: "FIRST ROMANS Ancestors of Romans migrated into central Italy around 1000 BC – Settled near ford in the Tiber River Italian tribes inhabited other regions."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIRST ROMANS Ancestors of Romans migrated into central Italy around 1000 BC – Settled near ford in the Tiber River Italian tribes inhabited other regions of the peninsula Greeks had several colonies in the south Etruscans had small empire in the north – Took over Romans shortly after they arrived

2 ETRUSCANS No one is sure where they originally came from Had 12 city-states in northern Italy Etruscan adventurers took over site of Rome City itself was founded during this period of Etruscan rule – When several villages merged together to form a small town

3 GROWTH AND INDEPENDENCE Rome became important link in the Etruscan trade network with the southern Greek city-states – Grew in both size and prosperity as a result Borrowed many aspects of its civilization from both the Etruscans and the Greeks Romans overthrow Etruscan rule in 509 BC

4 ROME CONQUERS ITALY Rome would take over former Etruscan territory During the next 100 years, Rome would gradually conquer all of Italy – Including Greek colonies in the south Conquest of Italy made Rome a serious power in the Western Mediterranean – And into competition with the North African city-state of Carthage

5 CARTHAGE Carthage had been founded as a Phoenician trading post but had grown to be a wealthy and powerful city-state Had an empire that included much of the North African coast and eastern 1/3 of Spain It wanted control of Sicily and thus be able all naval traffic in and out of the Western Mediterranean Rome wanted Sicily too and these rival claims on the island led to war between the two city-states in 264 BC

6 PUNIC WARS Three wars between Rome and Carthage fought between 264- 146 BC First Punic War – Primarily a naval war – Rome had big disadvantage at first but it hung in there and ultimately won

7 SECOND PUNIC WAR Carthaginian general, Hannibal, invaded Italy from the north – Defeated Roman armies sent to stop him time and time again – But was not able to attack Rome itself Settled for devastating Italy Romans would not surrender – Sent Scipio Africanus to North Africa to attack Carthage Defeated Hannibal outside walls of Carthage at Battle of Zama

8 THIRD PUNIC WAR Rome attacked defenseless Carthage and burnt it to the ground – All inhabitants sent to Rome as slaves – Ground sowed with salt so that nothing would ever even grow there again – Took over all former Carthaginian territory

9 BIRTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE After the defeat of Carthage, Rome was increasingly drawn into the affairs of the successor kingdoms of the East Rome ultimately went to war against them too and took over Greece, Macedonia, and the coast of Asian Minor More victories and more territory would be won in the future but, by 100 BC, the basic outline of the Roman Empire was in place MARE NOSTRUM (“Our Sea”)

10 ROMAN REPUBLIC I Rome originally set up a “republic” after it had overthrown the Etruscan kings – Not a democracy Dominated by the nobility (patricians) and wealthy commoners (plebeians) Ordinary people excluded from meaningful participation

11 ROMAN REPUBLIC II Top officials were two consuls – Elected every year – Always patricians Then came numerous other elected officials – Praetors, quaestors, – All elected for one year terms – All either patricians or plebeians Had several citizen assemblies – Tribal Assembly (acted as a legislature) Presided over by tribunes Also had the Senate – Advisory body to the consuls – Made up of the most wealthy and powerful men in the city – Not elected

12 THE ROMAN REVOLUTION I Government was designed to run a relatively small city-state – Not a world-wide empire – Governmental system became increasingly inefficient and inadequate as Rome grew in size and power – Result was an increasingly serious series of political crises which culminated in the “Roman Revolution” 133-31 BC

13 ROMAN REVOLUTION II Gaius Marius Sulla Pompey Magnus Gaius Julius Caesar Escalating Political Violence street fights physical assaults murder Increased social unrest Appearance of a series of ambitious and ruthless military commanders who tried to use their troops to impose themselves on Rome as dictators their ambitions plunged Rome into virtual civil war as their armies ravaged the empire, as well as each other

14 END OF THE ROMAN REVOLUTION Julius Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators Grand-nephew and heir, Octavian, joined forces with Caesar’s chief lieutenant, Marc Antony, to hunt down and punish the assassins Once they accomplished this mission, they turned on each other and launched a new civil war Marc Antony’s ally was Cleopatra VII of Egypt Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium In 31 BC and assumes sole control of the empire Marc Antony Cleopatra Octavian

15 AUGUSTUS Octavian changed his name to Augustus and created a new government more adequate to the needs of running a world-wide empire – Retained many Republican institutions but stripped them of all real power Which he concentrated in his hands – Took total control of the army To make sure that it would never again be used by ambitious commanders Never shared control of the army Augustus made himself the first emperor – Although he never used the title – Preferred to be called “princeps” (first citizen)

16 PROBLEMS: THE ARMY Ties Augustus established with the army were personal – Legions were loyal to him, not necessarily to the state – Never tried to make army loyal to the state, no matter who the ruler was Roman army had to “like” the ruler in order to be loyal to the state – System worked well for a while, but it broke down over time – By 200 AD, it had reached a point where the army made and broke emperors depending on who offered them the best deal

17 PROBLEMS: SUCCESSION Augustus eventually selected his step- son Tiberius to follow him – But he never set up a clear-cut system of succession – Choice of a heir was left up to current ruler And he might pick a son, or another relative, or a friend – And this person had to have the support of the army Ultimately led to all kinds of abuses and various men competed shamelessly to win the favor of both the current ruler and the army

18 EARLY DYNASTIES During the first 200 years that followed the death of Augustus, Rome was generally blessed with good leadership There were a few bad apples who abused their power but most emperors in the first three dynasties were pretty good rulers Caligula Nero Domitian Caligula Nero Domitian

19 FIVE GOOD EMPERORS First five emperors of the Antonine Dynasty Together, their reigns constituted a “Golden Age for Rome It was a time of unchallenged power, unparalleled prosperity, general peace, and honest and just rule Came to an end with the advent of Commodus NervaTrajanHadrianAntonius Pius Marcus Aurelius Commodus



22 TROUBLE Period of chaos followed death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD – Confusing series of short-term rulers Most of them generals who were put in power by their troops – Standard of living declined – Countryside became depopulated – Middle-class declined Crushed by ever-increasing taxes – Pressure on northern border increased By various Germanic tribes

23 DIOCLETIAN Rome temporarily saved by reforms of the emperor Diocletian – Had seized throne in 284 AD – Improved prestige of emperor by transforming it into a semi-divine office surrounded by rituals and drama – Restored economic stability by creating an empire-wide hereditary caste system Everyone frozen in their jobs Sons had to follow occupation of their father Everyone frozen in their place of residence Roman society became totally regimented in an effort to restore stability

24 CONSTANTINE Diocletian also tried to set up a stable succession system – Retired in 309 to watch it work But it didn’t New civil war broke out immediately Ultimate victor was Constantine Constantine known for two things – Legalizing Christianity – Dividing the empire into two parts West: with Rome as capital East: with new city of Constantinople as capital

25 Constantine divided the empire in two for administrative reasons. But after he died in 337 AD, East and West drifted apart By 350, two separate and independent political units had emerged: the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire and the Western, or Roman, Empire Eastern Empire would last another 1000 years, surviving until 1452

26 BIG TROUBLE IN THE WEST As it became isolated from the East, the West was plagued by new civil wars and continued economic and social problems – Finished off by a massive invasion of German barbarians Pushed into the Western Empire by the arrival of the Huns in Central Europe

27 “FALL” OF ROME Roman armies, now demoralized and disloyal, could not stop this onslaught of hundreds of thousands of German barbarians – They ravaged the Western Empire between 378-565 AD and ultimately carved it up into numerous Germanic kingdoms

28 Vandals Visigoths Franks Angles and Saxons Ostrogoths Western half of old Roman Empire was gone by 565 AD

29 EXPLANATION If Rome had been healthy, it probably could have stopped the Germans – But it wasn’t healthy – It was so fatally weakened by internal problems that it could not put up an effective resistance – And, in manner ways, it was no big loss

30 A NEW ERA The West had become impoverished, regimented, repressive, and sterile – Nothing positive could have evolved from it The slate needed to be wiped clean for further progress to take place – And that’s what the Germans did By destroying Rome, the Germans opened the possibility for future progress Based on best parts of ancient legacy and new components introduced by the Germans Would create a new civilization: the Middle Ages

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