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Rise of Islam. The Middle East Themes in Islamic History Islam as Religion Islam as State & Empire Islam as Civilization.

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of Islam. The Middle East Themes in Islamic History Islam as Religion Islam as State & Empire Islam as Civilization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rise of Islam

2 The Middle East

3 Themes in Islamic History Islam as Religion Islam as State & Empire Islam as Civilization

4 Arabia

5 Islam After Muhammad At death Muhammad in 632 he left no son to succeed him Daughter Fatima Split between Shiites and Sunnis –Great argument over succession Shiites – Only descendants of Fatima or her husband Ali should succeed Mohammed –Death of Husain (son of Ali) most celebrated event in Shiite calendar Sunnis – any follower of Islam should be eligible to lead –Division political & religious –Never settled to this day Series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State

6 Struggle for Succession Number of conflicting parties sought to succeed Muhammad Companions – belonged to Muhammad’s tribe or had accepted mission early Legitimists – heir must belong to family of Muhammad –Ali paternal cousin, husband of daughter Fatima & one of first believers Aristocracy of Quraysh – Umayyads –Held reigns of power & wealth in pre-Islamic days Companions triumphed with selection of abu-Bakr

7 Struggle for Succession Rashidun - Four “righteous” caliphs ( AD) –All were close associates and relatives of Muhammad Abu Bakr ( ) Father-in-law of Muhammad and one of first believers Umar ( ) main military genius who carried Islam forward from the Arabian peninsula Uthman ( ) - empire fell into a civil war called the Fitna –In 656 Uthman is assassinated by followers of Ali Ali ( ) Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin –Many refused to accept Ali as a leader –Killed by assassin Umayyad dynasty claims the caliphate – Damascus capital Abbasid dynasty – 754 – seizes caliphate –al Mansur ( ) builds new capital at Baghdad

8 Conquest & Expansion Expansion of Islamic empire against Byzantine & Sassanid (Persian) empires Abu-Bakr –Orders jihad (holy struggle) against the "infidel" Christian or Byzantine Empire north of Arabia Damascus becomes capital Umar 637 – Defeated great Persian Sassanid army 639 – Conquers Alexandria – base of Byzantine navy 643 – Arabs to border of India Tariq ibn Zaid crossed from North Africa (Morocco) into Spain in 711 Expansion stopped in France in 732 – Charles Martel (Battle of Tours)

9 The Spread of Islam

10 Medieval Baghdad

11 762 - Abbasid dynasty moved the capital of Islamic empire to the newly-founded city of Baghdad Caliph Al-Mansur founded Banks of the Tigris River Known as the “Round City” Foreign influences – Persian, Syrian & Hellenistic Baghdad capital of "Golden Age" of Islamic civilization Magnificent architectural achievement Muslim scholars - important contributions in the sciences, humanities, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and literature Became city of museums, hospitals, libraries World's richest & most intellectual city of the time Believed to be largest city in the world from 775 to possibly over 1,000,000 Baghdad was destroyed by the Mongols in 1258 Ended era of the Abbasids

12 Medieval Baghdad Bayt al-Hikmah (the House of Wisdom) World famous center of learning Attracted scholars from all over the world Library, academy and translation bureau Translate Greek works of Aristotle, Plato, Galen, Hippocrates, Euclid, and Pythagoras Translate Persian, Sanskrit, Syriac into Arabic Al-Khawarizmi, the "father" of algebra Merchants played a major role in the city From Persia, China, India, Africa & Europe Sinbad the Sailor recounts actual voyages made by Muslim merchants Caliphal palace known as the Golden Gate or the Green Dome Dome of audience chamber rose to 130 feet

13 Harun al-Rashid Abbasid caliph (r ) Baghdad a city of immense wealth and international significance under al-Rashid Tribute paid by many rulers to the caliph Used on architecture, arts & luxurious life at court Great patron of arts & sciences Encouragement of learning, art, poetry, music A scholar and poet himself Invited many scholars to the kingdom Founded first Muslim hospital Built Green Dome palace in Baghdad Fabulous court inspired the book One Thousand and One Nights Displays of extravagant wealth Entertainers flocked to his court: poets, wits, musicians, singers, and dancers Diplomatic relations with Charlemagne

14 Islamic Spain Influence on Medieval European civilization Ummayyad Caliph In Spain from 711 to 1492 Cordoba Center of culture that rivaled Baghdad Libraries, palaces, street lights, running water Cultural center of Medieval Europe Mosque – early vaulting like later Gothic cathedrals

15 Creation of Islamic Civilization Islamic civilization developed slowly –Centuries before majority of people in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia accepted Islam –People generally converted from self interest –Escape taxes & seek identification with ruling class Combination of cultural influences Arabs assimilated, adapted & reproduced the intellectual & cultural heritage of those they conquered Arabs adopted best art, architecture, philosophy, medicine, science, literature, and government mainly from Hellenized Aramaic & Persian civilizations Arab contribution was mainly in language and religion Final culmination of Semitic civilization which started in the Fertile Crescent developed by Assyro-Babylonians, Phoenicians, Aramaeans and Hebrews

16 Islamic Unity Arabic became language of business, government & literature Uniform enforcement of law contributed to growth of united culture Vast trade network extended from India to the Mediterranean

17 Rich Cultural Achievements Scholarship –Produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers –Importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace Heirs to Hellenistic Learning –Maintained Classical learning –Translation of Greek texts - Aristotle Medicine Architecture –Mosques, Palaces & Minarets Art –Geometric patterns, calligraphy, metal work

18 Science & Medicine Muslim scientists Saw no contradiction between religion and laws governing natural world Scientific method born Utilized Classical Greek medical texts Alchemy – beginnings of chemistry Muslim medicine Advanced techniques & ideas Theory that disease born through air born organisms Study of anatomy Vascular & cancer surgery Study of light, lenses & physiology of eye – led to camera Use of anesthetics Pharmacies Hospitals – separate disease in different wards

19 Pioneers of Medicine Ibn Sina (980 – 1037) – Known as Avicenna Contributions in philosophy, music, mathematics, geography & literature Utilized experimentation & observation wrote Canon of Medicine – encyclopedia of medicine Study of infectious disease Main medical text for 6 centuries Printed extensively throughout the West

20 Mathematics Introduced “Arabic” numerals – originally from India Replaced Roman numerals Included the zero – made for complex calculations Perfected use of decimals and fractions Invented Algebra

21 One Thousand and One Nights Classic of world literature Stories were created over many centuries, by many people and in many styles Originally Arabian, Persian, & Indian folk tales Collected during time of al-Rashid Best known stories: Ali Baba, Sinbad the Sailor, and Aladdin al-Rashid’s court frequent setting Frame story: Efforts of Scheherezade to keep her husband, King Shahryar from killing her by entertaining him with a tale a night for 1,001 nights Always a cliff hanger British translator – Richard Burton

22 Architecture


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