2 The Spread of IslamWhen Islam spread, Arabic culture was combined with native cultures to create a truly international flavor
3 Rise of Muslim citiesAs a symbol of their culture, Muslim rulers put a lot of work into their citiesGreat cities were Cordoba, Cairo, Jerusalem and especially the Abbasid capital of BaghdadBaghdad was built in a circular design formed by three protective wallsThe caliph’s palace was made of marble and stone along with a grand mosque
4 Continuing Rome’s learning After the decline of Rome, scholarship in Europe declined and may have been lost if it hadn’t been for Muslim leaders and scholarsThe House of Wisdom was opened in the early 800s in BaghdadIt was a combination of a library, academy and translation center – texts were translated from Greece, India, Persia, etc. into Arabic
5 Muslim literatureQu’ran is the standard for all Arabic literature and poetryFamous popular literature included The Thousand and One Nights, a collection of fairy tales, parables, and legendsParts came from India and Persia but the people of the Muslim Empire added to it
6 Muslim artMuslims believe that only Allah can create life, so images of living beings were discouragedMany artists turned to calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting
7 ArabesqueArabesque decoration is a complex, ornate design, usually incorporating flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns. The designs can be found at mosques, mosaics, textiles, and sculptures.
8 Muslim architectureGreat Muslim architecture is generally found in mosquesIt often blended Muslim ideas with Byzantine ones and included ideas from the areaCordoba Mosque in Spain
9 Medical Advancesal-Razi, a Persian scholar, was the greatest physician of the Muslim worldWrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book that drew on Greek, Syrian and Arabic knowledge and Treatise on Smallpox and MeaslesBelieved patients would be healthier if they breathed clean airal-Razi
10 Math and scienceMuslim scholars made two great contributions in the areas of math and science:Reliance on scientific observation and experimentationThe ability to find mathematical solutions to old problemsGreek scholars preferred logical reasoning rather than conducting experimentsSpent time studying astronomy and charted stars, comets, and planets
11 Impact on Society Math: Al-Jabr: wrote a book on a math technique today we call AlgebraScience:Ibn-Alhazen: wrote a book called OpticsArt:CalligraphyThe Thousand and One Nights
12 Impact on Society Medicine: Ibn-Sina: Discovered tuberculosis is contagious, can spread through water & soil, person’s emotional health is influenced by the physical health, 1st to describe: Meningitis, parts of the eye, &valves of the heartGeography:Ibn-Battuta: Muslim Explorer who traveled over 75, 000 miles and to every Muslim land, detailed map information and worked for foreign leaders
13 Muslim philosophyIbn RushdThe House of Wisdom translated the works of Greek philosophers into ArabicThe greatest Muslim philosopher was Ibn Rushd (also known as Averroes) who was critizied for trying to blend Aristotle’s and Plato’s views with those of Islam
14 Assignment (Activity 3.4.5) Islamic Museum Brochure With one partner, prepare a brochure for a museum exhibit about Muslim learning, culture, and historyTake one sheet of copy paper and fold in half – on the front, create a cover design for your exhibitionChoose 3 different elements of Muslim learning, culture and historyYou must describe each element with words and pictures that you draw – no clip art!