* Colony – a group of people ruled by the government of another country * Salutary Neglect – British government left us alone for almost 200 years and Americans began governing themselves * British citizens left to settle in America – government & laws were set up similar to Britain but because Britain was so far away citizens began governing themselves
Class Discussion Question: Would you follow the your parent’s rules if they were out of town? What would you do different?
* Unrest in England * King Charles I insisted that people should worship his way * Puritans- member of an English religious group * The Great Migration * Great Migration- Puritans left in 1630s to the Americas because of persecution. * The leader of the Great Migration was John Winthrop. * Massachusetts Bay Colony * Commonwealth - a community in which people work together for the whole. * Winthrop was the governor of the colony. * Settlers had a supposed “agreement” with God to have a holy city.
* Economy based on shipping, fishing, and timber. * Colonial New England Towns * New England farmers lived in towns and also worked in fields. * Each town had a meetinghouse where they made laws and determine fees for workers. * The New England Way * The meetinghouse was also used for church services, stricter than today. * The Puritans believed that the Bible was the source of truth and disapproved of dancing and playing games.
* Challenges to Puritans * Dissenter- someone who challenges the generally accepted views of a Church or society. * Puritans got mad at William Penn (dissenter who founded Pennsylvania for the Quakers) because he said the King had no right to sell Indians land. * Quakers faced Persecution * Quakers believed that you found God through your soul and that neither the Bible nor ministers were needed. * Quakers were hanged and tortured for their beliefs.
* New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware * New York was first New Netherlands until England took over New Amsterdam * New Jersey part of original New York * Pennsylvania founded by William Penn for Quakers * Would become place of freedom for all religions * Known as the “Bread Colonies” for production of wheat and other grains * Farming, lumber, and furs key to these colonies
* Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia * Georgia was a colony originally for common criminals and used as a buffer for other colonies from Spanish and Native American attacks * Tobacco was cash crop at first and cotton wouldn’t be key until the early 1800s * Large plantations and slavery ruled the South
* 2 Systems of government formed: * House of Burgesses - Virginia * Jamestown – established 1607 * Indirect or representative democracy * By 1619, each of the 22 areas surrounding the Jamestown colony elected 2 representatives to the House of Burgesses * Mayflower Compact – Massachusetts * Plymouth Colony – established 1620 * Direct democracy * Members signed the compact * Still active today in New England in the form of Town Hall meetings * Both are examples of Locke’s Social Contract Theory
"In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620."
* By 1733 all 13 colonies had established governments * All had a governor & legislature * Most legislatures were bicameral (2 houses) * Colonists began to separate themselves from England & rule themselves * Mid 1700s – Britain began to tighten control over the colonists under King George III – needed money to pay debts from the French & Indian War * Wanted to maintain control of resources & markets * Class Discussion: Do you think England had a right to tax the colonists?
* French empire collided w/ British empire * Competing over the Ohio River Valley
Britain claimed land east of the Mississippi River Proclamation Line: banned all settlement west of Appalachian Mts. (to ease tensions w/ N.A.) Increased Independent Spirit