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INTRODUCTION TO FRC ELECTRONICS Team 4159, CardinalBotics.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO FRC ELECTRONICS Team 4159, CardinalBotics."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO FRC ELECTRONICS Team 4159, CardinalBotics

2 Some Terminology Power wire The wire that carries power to the part. Usually colored red. Ground wire The wire that carries power away from the part back to the source. Usually colored black. Signal wire The wire that controls the part. Usually colored yellow. PWM – pulse width modulation A method to control the speed in which a motor turns Volts The difference of potential energy of electricity between two points Amps Electric current or flow

3 Powering Everything: Main Breaker The “On/Off” switch of the robot Serves as protection for the rest of the electronic components on the robot 120 Amp Breaker “Breaks” the circuit when reaching more than 120 Amps

4 Powering Everything: Power Distribution Board Distributes power to the rest of the electronic components on the robot Outputs: 12 WAGO connectors that distribute up to 30 Amps of Power 6 WAGO connectors that provide up to 40 Amps of Power Plugs for powering the cRIO, sidecar, and camera (12V, 24V)

5 Concerning the Amp Breakers/Fuses on the PD Board You can limit the current that your components draw with amp breakers Two types of breakers: Resettable breakers – these breakers will break the flow of power when reaching the maximum amp value. Afterwards, they will restart flow once again.(these will generally be colored black) Non-resettable breakers – these breakers will break power. ONE TIME USE ONLY (these will generally be colored yellow) Note: These components are essential for drawing power on the PD board. Without them, a red light will illuminate, indicating the need for a breaker.

6 Controlling Everything: The cRIO The “brain” of the robot Ethernet port for a router Connects to the 24V port on the PD board for power Has reconfigurable slots for analog breakouts, solenoid breakouts, and the digital sidecar. (to be discusses later)

7 Controlling Everything: The Digital Sidecar Connects to the cRIO through the middle module Relevant Outputs: 10 PWM outputs 8 Relay output pairs 14 Digital I/O headers I 2 C output (to be discussed later) Robot signal light output (RSL) Connected to the PD board in a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse

8 Concerning the Breakout Modules on the cRIO Solenoid Breakout 8 Solenoid pins for pneumatics Powered by 30A WAGO connector with 20A fuse Analog Breakout Provides analog input for sensors Monitors the battery voltage Powered by 30A WAGO connecter with 20A fuse

9 Controlling Everything: The Router Used to connect the robot to the field/computer Connects to the cRIO via Ethernet port Powered through the 12V to 5V converter

10 The 12V to 5V Converter Converts the 12 Volt power supplied from the PD board into 5 Volts for the router. Also can be used to convert power for a microcontroller (arduino) Powered by the 12V output on the PD board

11 Motor Control: The Talon Motor Controller - Controls the speed and direction that a motor turns Can be wired to either 40A or 30A WAGO connectors on the PD board Receives signals from the PWM outputs on the digital sidecar Note: Motors that are used for driving are connected to the 40A WAGO connectors, since they draw more current

12 Pneumatics: The Spike and Compressor Compressor Compresses air for pneumatics Acquires power through a Spike H-Bridge Relay Spike H-Bridge Relay Connects to a relay output on the digital sidecar Controls the power that goes to the compressor Uses a 20A breaker Acquires power from the PD board through the 30A WAGO connector with a 20A breaker

13 Pneumatics: The Solenoid and Pressure Switch Pressure Switch Closes when a preset PSI value is reached Wired to a digital input on the sidecar Solenoid Controls the actuation of a piston Controlled by the solenoid breakout or a spike relay

14 Sensors: The Optical Rotary Encoder Counts the degrees of rotation of a certain moving part Used for PID Wired to two Digital I/O ports in the sidecar

15 Sensors: The Gyroscope and Accelerometer Gyroscope Used to detect degrees of rotation on a certain axis Wired to the analog breakout on the cRIO Accelerometer Used to detect acceleration Can be wired to: Digital I/O I²C port (both on the digital sidecar)

16 Miscellaneous: WAGO Connecters and Heat Shrinks WAGO Connectors Used to connect wires to the PD board and power connecters for the breakouts on the cRIO How to connect: Strip wire Use a small screwdriver to press down a tab inside the upper socket of the connecter Fit the wire into the hole Remove the screwdriver to secure the wire Heat Shrink Used to reinforce a connection between two wires How to connect: Strip all wires Cut off a piece heat shrink tube and fit it on one of the connecting wires Twist the wires together and slide the heat shrink tube onto the connection Use a heat gun or match to apply heat to shrink the tube.

17 Miscellaneous: Sauro Connectors and PWM cables Sauro Connecters Used in powering the cRIO To connect: Strip wires Loosen the screw corresponding to the terminal you want to connect to Fit the wire inside the terminal Tighten the screw to secure the wire PWM cables Used to control talons/receive input from sensors 3 wires: Red, Black/Brown, White/Yellow Red: Power Black: Ground White: Signal

18 Wiring Techniques: Anderson Connecters How to wire: Strip wire Fit an Anderson crimp onto the wire Note: Make sure that all of the strands in the wire are fit inside the crimp Use the Anderson crimping tool to squeeze the crimp into place Note: the open side of the “hook” on the crimp must be facing down Fit the connecter onto the crimp, with the hook still facing downwards

19 Wiring the PD Board through the Main Breaker Parts involves: Main Breaker PD board 4-6 AWG wire Anderson battery connecter w/ wires Crimps Hydraulic or any other strong crimper Measure the distance between the main breaker and the power terminals of the PD board to size a powering wire Strip all ends of the wire and fit large metal crimps onto them Crimp the ends of the wire using the hydraulic crimper Connect the red wire from the battery connector to the main breaker. Note: you must connect to the side labeled BAT Using your sized wire, connect the other side of the main breaker to the + side of the PD board. Connect the black wire from the battery connecter to the – side of the PD board.

20 Powering the cRIO Parts involved: 18 AWG wire (red and black) Sauro Connectors Wire Strippers cRIO Measure the distance between the PD Board and cRIO for proper wire lengths Strip wires Connect the wires to the V and C terminals. V corresponds with red and C corresponds with black

21 Powering the Digital Sidecar Parts involved: WAGO terminal 18 AWG Wire (red and black) Wire Stripper Digital Sidecar 20A breaker Measure the distance between the digital sidecar and the PD board Size and strip the wires Connect wires to a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A breaker on the PD board Connect the end of the wires to the WAGO terminal (works just like the connectors on the PD board, only smaller Note: The sidecar has + and – symbols to indicate the color of wire it needs. + for red, - for black Fit the WAGO terminal onto the sidecar

22 Wiring 12V-5V Converter and Router Part involved: 12V-5V converter Anderson connector crimps Anderson connectors Anderson crimper router power cable Multimeter Strip wires on the converter Fit the red and black set of wires into a WAGO connector Fit the WAGO connecter into the 12V slot of the PD board Remove the wall wart from the router power cable and strip ends Determine the power wire by fitting a multimeter lead in the socket on the end of the power cable and checking for continuity with the other lead Fit a white Anderson connector on the power wire and a black Anderson connector on the ground wire of the router power cable Fit a white Anderson connector on the yellow wire of the converter and do the same with a black connector on the black wire

23 Wiring Breakouts on cRIO Part involved: 18 AWG wire (red and black) 20A breaker WAGO terminal Analog breakout Solenoid breakout Measure the distance between both breakouts and the PD board Size and strip wires For Analog Breakout: Connect the wires to a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse on the PD board Connect the wires to the WAGO terminal and fit it into the analog breakout For Solenoid Breakout: Connect wires to the WAGO terminal and fit it into the solenoid breakout Connect the wires to the 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse on the PD board Note: this will only work with 12V solenoids. If you are using a 24 V solenoid, you need to draw power from the 24V output on the PD board (same connecter as cRIO)

24 Wiring the Spike Relay and Compressor Parts involved: Compressor Spike relay Sliding crimps 12 AWG wire (red and black) 20A breaker Electrical tape Measure distance between Spike and PD board Size and strip wires (both compressor power wires and spike wires) Connect the spike wires to a 30A connector with a 20A breaker on the PD board On the other side of the spike wires, crimp the sliding crimps firmly into place Slide the crimps into place on the spike. Tape over them to cover the leads Red goes with 12V, black goes with GND Crimp the sliding crimps on the compressor power wires firmly into place Slide the wires onto the spike’s leads Red goes with M+, black goes with M- Tape exposed parts over with electrical tape Using a PWM cable, wire spike to its respective relay port on the digital sidecar

25 Wiring Solenoids Parts involved: Two-pin jumper cable Solenoid cable Solenoid Heat gun or match Heat shrink tubes Wire stripper Preparing the wire Cut one end of both the two-pin jumper cable and solenoid cable Strip ends Heat shrink the two wires together as mentioned before Wiring the solenoid Connect the jumper cable end of the wire to the corresponding pin on the solenoid breakout Connect the other end to the desired solenoid

26 Powering Motor Controllers Parts involved: 12 AWG wire (red and black) Talon Ring Connector Screwdriver Measure the distance from the talon to the PD Board Size and strip wires Connect wires to the proper WAGO connector 40A if Talon is controlling a driving motor 30A if Talon is controlling any other kind of motor Crimp ring connectors to the other side of the wires Screw wires into power terminals on the talons. The red wire correspond with the + sign, black wires correspond with the – side.

27 Wiring Motors Parts involved: 12 AWG wire (red and black) Crimper Ring crimps Anderson connectors Anderson Crimps Anderson Crimper Measure distance between talon and motor Size and strip wires (motor wires included) Crimp ring connectors on the measured wires Screw wires into talon terminals. M+ goes with the red wire Attach Anderson connectors to motor wires with connectors corresponding with the wire color Attach Anderson connecters to talon wires with connectors corresponding with the wire color Connect motor wires together with Talon wires

28 Wiring Signal Light Parts involved: Thin wire Two wire jumper cable Wire stripper Signal Light Cut one end of the jumper cable and strip ends Cut a small piece of wire and strip ends Using the small piece of wire, connect the La and Lb ports together Connect the red wire on the jumper to the La port and the black wire to the N port Connect the other end of the wire to the RSL terminal on the sidecar

29 Finishing Up Parts involved: Ribbon cable PWM cables Ethernet cable Connect the digital sidecar to the cRIO’s second reconfigurable slot Connect the motor controller’s to the digital PWM pins using PWM cable Note: the PWM cable must be plugged in the right way. The letter B will indicate where the black wire will go for the talon. Connect the Ethernet cable to the Ethernet port on the cRIO and one of the Ethernet ports on the router

30 Wiring the Gyroscope Part involved: Gyroscope PWM cable Connect one side of the PWM cable to the header pins on the gyroscope Connect the other side of the PWM cable to the desired pin on the Analog breakout

31 Wiring the Optical Encoder Parts involved: 2 PWM cables Optical encoder Heat shrink tubes Wire stripper PWM Cable 1: Orange/red wire on the encoder connects to red on the PWM cable Blue wire on the encoder connects to the white/yellow wire on the PWM cable Brown/black wire on the encoder connects to the brown/black wire on the PWM cable PWM Cable 2: Yellow wire on the encoder connects to white/yellow wire on the PWM cable Connect the cables to consecutive digital I/O ports on the sidecar

32 Wiring the Accelerometer Parts involved: 4 PWM cables Wire stripper Accelerometer I 2 C Cable (optional) Two ways to wire the accelerometer – using the SPI headers and I 2 C headers SPI PWM cable 1 – Red wire connected to 5V, black wire connected to 0V, Yellow/White wire connected to CK PWM Cable 2 – White/Yellow wire connected to DI PWM Cable 3 – White/Yellow wire connected to DO PWM Cable 4 – White/Yellow wire connected to CS Connect PWM cables to consecutive Digital I/O pins I 2 C Connect the I 2 C cable to the accelerometer and digital sidecar.


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