Presentation on theme: "Introduction To Frc electronics"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction To Frc electronics Team 4159, CardinalBotics
2Some Terminology Power wire Ground wire Signal wire The wire that carries power to the part. Usually colored red.Ground wireThe wire that carries power away from the part back to the source. Usually colored black.Signal wireThe wire that controls the part. Usually colored yellow.PWM – pulse width modulationA method to control the speed in which a motor turnsVoltsThe difference of potential energy of electricity between two pointsAmpsElectric current or flow
3Powering Everything: Main Breaker The “On/Off” switch of the robotServes as protection for the rest of the electronic components on the robot120 Amp Breaker“Breaks” the circuit when reaching more than 120 Amps
4Powering Everything: Power Distribution Board Distributes power to the rest of the electronic components on the robotOutputs:12 WAGO connectors that distribute up to 30 Amps of Power6 WAGO connectors that provide up to 40 Amps of PowerPlugs for powering the cRIO, sidecar, and camera (12V, 24V)
5Concerning the Amp Breakers/Fuses on the PD Board You can limit the current that your components draw with amp breakersTwo types of breakers:Resettable breakers – these breakers will break the flow of power when reaching the maximum amp value. Afterwards, they will restart flow once again.(these will generally be colored black)Non-resettable breakers – these breakers will break power. ONE TIME USE ONLY (these will generally be colored yellow)Note: These components are essential for drawing power on the PD board. Without them, a red light will illuminate, indicating the need for a breaker.
6Controlling Everything: The cRIO The “brain” of the robotEthernet port for a routerConnects to the 24V port on the PD board for powerHas reconfigurable slots for analog breakouts, solenoid breakouts, and the digital sidecar. (to be discusses later)
7Controlling Everything: The Digital Sidecar Connects to the cRIO through the middle moduleRelevant Outputs:10 PWM outputs8 Relay output pairs14 Digital I/O headersI2C output (to be discussed later)Robot signal light output (RSL)Connected to the PD board in a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse
8Concerning the Breakout Modules on the cRIO Solenoid Breakout8 Solenoid pins for pneumaticsPowered by 30A WAGO connector with 20A fuseAnalog BreakoutProvides analog input for sensorsMonitors the battery voltagePowered by 30A WAGO connecter with 20A fuse
9Controlling Everything: The Router Used to connect the robot to the field/computerConnects to the cRIO via Ethernet portPowered through the 12V to 5V converter
10The 12V to 5V ConverterConverts the 12 Volt power supplied from the PD board into 5 Volts for the router.Also can be used to convert power for a microcontroller (arduino)Powered by the 12V output on the PD board
11Motor Control: The Talon Motor Controller - Controls the speed and direction that a motor turnsCan be wired to either 40A or 30A WAGO connectors on the PD boardReceives signals from the PWM outputs on the digital sidecarNote: Motors that are used for driving are connected to the A WAGO connectors, since they draw more current
12Pneumatics: The Spike and Compressor Compresses air for pneumaticsAcquires power through a Spike H-Bridge RelaySpike H-Bridge RelayConnects to a relay output on the digital sidecarControls the power that goes to the compressorUses a 20A breakerAcquires power from the PD board through the30A WAGO connector with a 20A breaker
13Pneumatics: The Solenoid and Pressure Switch Closes when a preset PSI value is reachedWired to a digital input on the sidecarSolenoidControls the actuation of a pistonControlled by the solenoid breakout or a spike relay
14Sensors: The Optical Rotary Encoder Counts the degrees of rotation of a certain moving partUsed for PIDWired to two Digital I/O ports in the sidecar
15Sensors: The Gyroscope and Accelerometer Used to detect degrees of rotation on a certain axisWired to the analog breakout on the cRIOAccelerometerUsed to detect accelerationCan be wired to:Digital I/OI²C port (both on the digital sidecar)
16Miscellaneous: WAGO Connecters and Heat Shrinks WAGO ConnectorsUsed to connect wires to the PD board and power connecters for the breakouts on the cRIOHow to connect:Strip wireUse a small screwdriver to press down a tab inside the upper socket of the connecterFit the wire into the holeRemove the screwdriver to secure the wireHeat ShrinkUsed to reinforce a connection between two wiresStrip all wiresCut off a piece heat shrink tube and fit it on one of the connecting wiresTwist the wires together and slide the heat shrink tube onto the connectionUse a heat gun or match to apply heat to shrink the tube.
17Miscellaneous: Sauro Connectors and PWM cables Sauro ConnectersUsed in powering the cRIOTo connect:Strip wiresLoosen the screw corresponding to the terminal you want to connect toFit the wire inside the terminalTighten the screw to secure the wirePWM cablesUsed to control talons/receive input from sensors3 wires: Red, Black/Brown, White/YellowRed: PowerBlack: GroundWhite: Signal
18Wiring Techniques: Anderson Connecters How to wire:Strip wireFit an Anderson crimp onto the wireNote: Make sure that all of the strands in thewire are fit inside the crimpUse the Anderson crimping tool to squeezethe crimp into placeNote: the open side of the “hook” on the crimpmust be facing downFit the connecter onto the crimp, with the hookstill facing downwards
19Wiring the PD Board through the Main Breaker Parts involves:Main BreakerPD board4-6 AWG wireAnderson battery connecter w/ wiresCrimpsHydraulic or any other strong crimperMeasure the distance between the main breaker and the power terminals of the PD board to size a powering wireStrip all ends of the wire and fit large metal crimps onto themCrimp the ends of the wire using the hydraulic crimperConnect the red wire from the battery connector to the main breaker. Note: you must connect to the side labeled BATUsing your sized wire, connect the other side of the main breaker to the + side of the PD board.Connect the black wire from the battery connecter to the – side of the PD board.
20Powering the cRIO Parts involved: Measure the distance between the PD 18 AWG wire (red and black)Sauro ConnectorsWire StripperscRIOMeasure the distance between the PDBoard and cRIO for proper wire lengthsStrip wiresConnect the wires to the V and Cterminals.V corresponds with red and C corresponds with black
21Powering the Digital Sidecar Parts involved:WAGO terminal18 AWG Wire (red and black)Wire StripperDigital Sidecar20A breakerMeasure the distance between the digital sidecar and the PD boardSize and strip the wiresConnect wires to a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A breaker on the PD boardConnect the end of the wires to the WAGO terminal (works just like the connectors on the PD board, only smallerNote: The sidecar has + and – symbols to indicate the color of wire it needs. + for red, - for blackFit the WAGO terminal onto the sidecar
22Wiring 12V-5V Converter and Router Part involved:12V-5V converterAnderson connector crimpsAnderson connectorsAnderson crimperrouter power cableMultimeterStrip wires on the converterFit the red and black set of wires into a WAGO connectorFit the WAGO connecter into the 12V slot of the PD boardRemove the wall wart from the router power cable and strip endsDetermine the power wire by fitting a multimeter lead in the socket on the end of the power cable and checking for continuity with the other leadFit a white Anderson connector on the power wire and a black Anderson connector on the ground wire of the router power cableFit a white Anderson connector on the yellow wire of the converter and do the same with a black connector on the black wireNEEDS MORE PICTURES
23Wiring Breakouts on cRIO Part involved:18 AWG wire (red and black)20A breakerWAGO terminalAnalog breakoutSolenoid breakoutMeasure the distance between both breakouts and the PD boardSize and strip wiresFor Analog Breakout:Connect the wires to a 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse on the PD boardConnect the wires to the WAGO terminal and fit it into the analog breakoutFor Solenoid Breakout:Connect wires to the WAGO terminal and fit it into the solenoid breakoutConnect the wires to the 30A WAGO connector with a 20A fuse on the PD boardNote: this will only work with 12V solenoids. If you are using a 24 V solenoid, you need to draw power from the 24V output on the PD board (same connecter as cRIO)NEEDS SOLENOID BREAKOUT
24Wiring the Spike Relay and Compressor Parts involved:CompressorSpike relaySliding crimps12 AWG wire (red and black)20A breakerElectrical tapeMeasure distance between Spike and PD boardSize and strip wires (both compressor power wires and spike wires)Connect the spike wires to a 30A connector with a 20A breaker on the PD boardOn the other side of the spike wires, crimp the sliding crimps firmly into placeSlide the crimps into place on the spike. Tape over them to cover the leadsRed goes with 12V, black goes with GNDCrimp the sliding crimps on the compressor power wires firmly into placeSlide the wires onto the spike’s leadsRed goes with M+, black goes with M-Tape exposed parts over with electrical tapeUsing a PWM cable, wire spike to its respective relay port on the digital sidecarConfirm wire length
25Wiring Solenoids Parts involved: Preparing the wire Two-pin jumper cableSolenoid cableSolenoidHeat gun or matchHeat shrink tubesWire stripperPreparing the wireCut one end of both the two-pin jumper cable and solenoid cableStrip endsHeat shrink the two wires together as mentioned beforeWiring the solenoidConnect the jumper cable end of the wire to the corresponding pin on the solenoid breakoutConnect the other end to the desired solenoid
26Powering Motor Controllers Parts involved:12 AWG wire (red and black)TalonRing ConnectorScrewdriverMeasure the distance from the talon to the PD BoardSize and strip wiresConnect wires to the proper WAGO connector40A if Talon is controlling a driving motor30A if Talon is controlling any other kind of motorCrimp ring connectors to the other side of the wiresScrew wires into power terminals on the talons. The red wire correspond with the + sign, black wires correspond with the – side.
27Wiring Motors Parts involved: Measure distance between talon and motor 12 AWG wire (red and black)CrimperRing crimpsAnderson connectorsAnderson CrimpsAnderson CrimperMeasure distance between talon and motorSize and strip wires (motor wires included)Crimp ring connectors on the measured wiresScrew wires into talon terminals. M+ goes with the red wireAttach Anderson connectors to motor wires with connectors corresponding with the wire colorAttach Anderson connecters to talon wires with connectors corresponding with the wire colorConnect motor wires together with Talon wires
28Wiring Signal Light Parts involved: Thin wireTwo wire jumper cableWire stripperSignal LightCut one end of the jumper cable and strip endsCut a small piece of wire and strip endsUsing the small piece of wire, connect the La and Lb ports togetherConnect the red wire on the jumper to the La port and the black wire to the N portConnect the other end of the wire to the RSL terminal on the sidecar
29Finishing Up Parts involved: Ribbon cablePWM cablesEthernet cableConnect the digital sidecar to the cRIO’s second reconfigurable slotConnect the motor controller’s to the digital PWM pins using PWM cableNote: the PWM cable must be plugged in the right way. The letter B will indicate where the black wire will go for the talon.Connect the Ethernet cable to the Ethernet port on the cRIO and one of the Ethernet ports on the router
30Wiring the Gyroscope Part involved: PWM cableConnect one side of the PWM cable to the header pins on the gyroscopeConnect the other side of the PWM cable to the desired pin on the Analog breakout
31Wiring the Optical Encoder Parts involved:2 PWM cablesOptical encoderHeat shrink tubesWire stripperPWM Cable 1:Orange/red wire on the encoder connects to red on the PWM cableBlue wire on the encoder connects to the white/yellow wire on the PWM cableBrown/black wire on the encoder connects to the brown/black wire on the PWM cablePWM Cable 2:Yellow wire on the encoder connects to white/yellow wire on the PWM cableConnect the cables to consecutive digital I/O ports on the sidecar
32Wiring the Accelerometer Parts involved:4 PWM cablesWire stripperAccelerometerI2C Cable (optional)Two ways to wire the accelerometer – using the SPI headers and I2C headersSPIPWM cable 1 – Red wire connected to 5V, black wire connected to 0V, Yellow/White wire connected to CKPWM Cable 2 – White/Yellow wire connected to DIPWM Cable 3 – White/Yellow wire connected to DOPWM Cable 4 – White/Yellow wire connected to CSConnect PWM cables to consecutive Digital I/O pinsI2CConnect the I2C cable to the accelerometer and digital sidecar.