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Craft and Design Your need to know. Change the shape of the chair. Circles, triangles, curves. Change the colour of the chair. Bright, dull, contrasting.

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Presentation on theme: "Craft and Design Your need to know. Change the shape of the chair. Circles, triangles, curves. Change the colour of the chair. Bright, dull, contrasting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Craft and Design Your need to know

2 Change the shape of the chair. Circles, triangles, curves. Change the colour of the chair. Bright, dull, contrasting. Change the texture of the chair. Rough, smooth, furry. Change the material of the chair. Wood, metal, plastic, concrete. Design Aesthetics. What things look like. If a designer wants to change the Aesthetics of this chair, they could try some the following things Aesthetics. What things look like. If a designer wants to change the Aesthetics of this chair, they could try some the following things Investigation/research Evaluation Analysis of brief Design brief Specification Idea generation Planning for manufacture Manufacture Design process Design process Anthropometrics. Measuring and recording the sizes of people. Anthropometrics. Measuring and recording the sizes of people. Anthropometric data table. You can use this instead of doing all the measuring yourself. Ergonomics. How things are designed to suit the sizes of the human body Ergonomics. How things are designed to suit the sizes of the human body If you measure the height of the whole population you will get a few small people, a few big people, and a lot in between. We cant design for everyone, so we forget about the smallest 5% and tallest 5% of the people. So we design for people between the 5 th and 95 th percentile. If you want to design something for small people use the 5 th percentile sizes. If you want to design something for tall people use the 95 th percentile. If you want to design for the average size use the 50 th percentile. Smallest people Tallest people Ergonome. When a designer is working on a product they might use an ergonome. This is a model of a person of average size (50 th percentile) An ergonome being used to design a desk.

3 Butt joint Wood Wood joints Rebate joint Dowel joint Housing joint Stopped housing joint Dovetail joint Mortice and tenon Cross halving Knock down fitting. Used so that customer can build their furniture at home. Means furniture can be transported flat instead of built up Types of wood. There are two families of wood; Softwood These come from trees which have needles. They do not have leaves to fall. Softwoods include; Red pine, Cedar, Douglas fir Hardwood These come from trees which loose their leaves in the autumn. Hardwoods include Oak, Beech & Mahogany Manmade boards These are made from wood, but usually cheap or unsightly pieces that cant be used on their own. Plywood Blockboard Chipboard MDF Types of wood. There are two families of wood; Softwood These come from trees which have needles. They do not have leaves to fall. Softwoods include; Red pine, Cedar, Douglas fir Hardwood These come from trees which loose their leaves in the autumn. Hardwoods include Oak, Beech & Mahogany Manmade boards These are made from wood, but usually cheap or unsightly pieces that cant be used on their own. Plywood Blockboard Chipboard MDF Wood glue The main glue used with wood is PVA. A joint glued with PVA need to be tightly clamped and left for 9-12 hours to get to full strength. Wood glue The main glue used with wood is PVA. A joint glued with PVA need to be tightly clamped and left for 9-12 hours to get to full strength. G-Clamp Sash cramp Mortice machine: Used to cut the mortice (hole) in a mortice and tenon joint. If you cut it by hand, then you would use a mortice chisel. Hand router Used to make a flat bottom in a housing joint.

4 Wood Smoothing Plane: Used for taking small cuts from wood to shape it. Jack Plane: Used for smoothing long edges of wood. Mortice chisel: Used to hand cut a mortice hole. Bevel edged chisel: Multi-purpose workshop chisel. Bradawl: Used to make pilot hole in wood to allow screw to start. Woodscrews How to prepare for putting in a wood screw Woodscrews How to prepare for putting in a wood screw Clearance hole Countersink Pilot hole With screw in place Holes to be drilled Finishing wood: Wood must have a finish put onto it to keep it looking good, and to protect it from rain. Finishing wood: Wood must have a finish put onto it to keep it looking good, and to protect it from rain. Varnish: This is usually clear, so it protects the wood from rain, but you can still see the wood underneath. Paint: This covers up the wood. It protects the wood, but you would use it on cheaper woods or man made boards. Cutting wood Tenon saw Coping saw Jig saw

5 Wood Shaping Wood 1 Shaping Wood 1 Wood turning. Making cylinder shaped objects in wood. HeadstockTailstock Tool rest Driving centre. Has teeth which bite into wood. This makes the wood spin round Live centre. Spins on ball bearings, and supports the other end of the wood. Dead centre could have been used but this does not spin, so burns the wood. Draw diagonals on each end. Saw down 3mm on each diagonal with tenon saw. Draw circle on each end using dividers. Use smoothing plane to take off the corners to make an octogan. Increase the speed of the lathe for the last cut to improve surface finish. Getting ready Try square Marking gauge Cross pein (Warrington) hammer Mortice gauge Claw hammer Gouge Parting tool Outside callipers: Used to measure the diameter of the wood you are turning. Woodworking hand tools. Spur Stem Stock Nail punch Steel rule

6 Metal Ferrous metals contain ironNon ferrous don’t. e.g. Cast Iron, Mild steel.e.g. Aluminium, Brass, Copper, Tin. Ferrous metals contain ironNon ferrous don’t. e.g. Cast Iron, Mild steel.e.g. Aluminium, Brass, Copper, Tin. Shaping Metal 1 Shaping Metal 1 Files Forge work. Where metal is heated and beaten into shape using a large ball pein hammer against the anvil. Forge work. Where metal is heated and beaten into shape using a large ball pein hammer against the anvil. File card. Used to clean teeth of file. Anvil Brazing hearth Tongs. Used to hold hot metal Drilling Pillar Drill Twist drill bit Countersink bit Hand Drill Machine vice Hand vice. For holding thin sheet metal while drilling Sheet metal work Tins snips. For cutting out shapes in thin metal Folding bars. For holding sheet metal while it is being bent. Hide Mallet. For hammering sheet metal to shape. Sawing metal Hacksaw Junior Hacksaw Guard Chuck Chuck key to tighten drill bit Table Safety Tie hair back Wear goggles No loose clothing Heat treatment. We can change the strength of metal by heating it up and cooling it down in different ways. Annealing. Steel is heated up to a dull red colour and left to cool. This makes the steel easier to bend or hammer into shape Hardening. Steel is heated up to deep red and cooled immediately This makes the steel hard but brittle. Tempering. Steel is heated up gently and left to cool. This makes the steel not quite as hard, but much less brittle. Heat treatment. We can change the strength of metal by heating it up and cooling it down in different ways. Annealing. Steel is heated up to a dull red colour and left to cool. This makes the steel easier to bend or hammer into shape Hardening. Steel is heated up to deep red and cooled immediately This makes the steel hard but brittle. Tempering. Steel is heated up gently and left to cool. This makes the steel not quite as hard, but much less brittle.

7 Metal Shaping Metal 2 Metal lathe Tailstock Chuck Bed Guard Saddle Tool post Headstock Cross slide Compound slide. Can be set to any angle. Used to cut tapers. Facing off Cutting tool is passed across the end face of the work piece to produce a mirrored flat surface. Parallel turning Cutting tool is passed along the length of the work piece to reduce the diameter. Parting off Thin parting tool is passed through the work piece to cut it off from the bar. Knurling Lathe is set to slow speed. Knurling tool leaves criss cross print on metal to give it better grip. Taper turning Cutting a cone shape. COMPOUND SLIDE ONLY must be used. Drilling Use Jacobs chuck in tailstock. Start with centre drill to make pilot hole, then use twist drills to work up to finished size. Centre drill If cutting tool is too low you will be left with a small piece in the middle when you have made a cut. This is called a pip. If this happens adjust the height of the cutting tool up and continue. Safety. Wear goggles Tie hair and clothing back Make sure chuck key is removed Make sure guard is in place Safety. Wear goggles Tie hair and clothing back Make sure chuck key is removed Make sure guard is in place Measuring Micrometer: Used to very accurately measure sizes when using the metalwork lathe.

8 Metal Joining Metal Joining Metal Welding Permanent joint Welding Permanent joint Electricity is passed between 2 pieces to be joined. This generates a lot of heat, melting the edges to be joined making a strong permanent joint. Riveting Permanent joint Riveting Permanent joint Nut and bolt Can be taken apart Nut and bolt Can be taken apart Pop Rivet. Quick and easy rivet to form. They can be formed from only one side of the job Rivet set Riveted Joint. Snap head both sides Tap wrench Cutting a screw thread. An inside thread (nut) is cut with taps. An outside thread (bolt) is cut with a die. Use taps in this order 1. Taper tap 2. Intermediate tap 3. Plug tap Die Die stock Using the die. For first cut tighten middle screw and loosen outside ones. Second cut. Loosen middle one and tighten both outside ones. Types of rivet head Gluing Permanent joint Gluing Permanent joint An epoxy resin glue can be used to glue metal together,

9 Metal Shaping Metal 3 Casting. A hole is formed in sand using a mould. The mould is removed, and The hole left behind is filled with molten aluminium (650 – 700 °C). Used to make irregular shapes in metal. Casting. A hole is formed in sand using a mould. The mould is removed, and The hole left behind is filled with molten aluminium (650 – 700 °C). Used to make irregular shapes in metal. Runner Riser Crucible Marking out Metal Measuring Outside callipers Inside callipers Micrometer Marking out Engineers square Ball pein hammer Odd leg callipers Dividers Steel rule Centre punch Scriber

10 Plastics THERMO PLASTICS can be heated up and reshaped many times. They have plastic memory; this means they remember they were made in big flat sheets, and will try to go back to this flat shape when heated. Acrylic is a Thermo plastic. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS cannot be heated up and reshaped. They will stay in the shape they were made in permanently. Melamine is a Thermosetting Plastic THERMO PLASTICS can be heated up and reshaped many times. They have plastic memory; this means they remember they were made in big flat sheets, and will try to go back to this flat shape when heated. Acrylic is a Thermo plastic. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS cannot be heated up and reshaped. They will stay in the shape they were made in permanently. Melamine is a Thermosetting Plastic Vacuum forming This is a process where you heat thin Thermoplastics up and place it over a mould. You then suck out the air (a vacuum) and the plastic takes up the exact shape of the mould. Click on the picture of the Vacuum forming machine below to see a Youtube video of it. You will not be able to watch this in school! Vacuum forming This is a process where you heat thin Thermoplastics up and place it over a mould. You then suck out the air (a vacuum) and the plastic takes up the exact shape of the mould. Click on the picture of the Vacuum forming machine below to see a Youtube video of it. You will not be able to watch this in school! Oven. Used to heat up the whole of a piece of plastic Oven. Used to heat up the whole of a piece of plastic Strip heater. Used to heat a thin area of the plastic to make precise line bends. Strip heater. Used to heat a thin area of the plastic to make precise line bends. Cutting Coping saw Edge finishing. 1.Cross file 2.Draw file 3.Draw file with wet and dry. 4.Polish with metal polish Edge finishing. 1.Cross file 2.Draw file 3.Draw file with wet and dry. 4.Polish with metal polish Dip coating. Puts a plastic coating onto metal. It makes metal tools more comfortable to use, and stops steel from rusting. Dip coating. Puts a plastic coating onto metal. It makes metal tools more comfortable to use, and stops steel from rusting. Fluidising tank (Dip coating machine.) Vacuum forming mould. Must have sloping sides to allow the mould to be removed from the plastic this is called draw. It must also have rounded corners to stop the plastic splitting as it stretches over the mould. Marking out Pen or pencil


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