Presentation on theme: "The Talking Drums of Yoruba Land Matt Black. Music in Africa Sing for me! Meant to send spirit on journey, from earthly presence to spiritual Used in."— Presentation transcript:
Music in Africa Sing for me! Meant to send spirit on journey, from earthly presence to spiritual Used in divination, to get Diviners into trance for spirit Possession
Drummers Taught from an early age If show potential, or born into family of drummers Babalawos are not Drummers Only Men Take apprenticeship, until proficient, then become masters themselves
The Bata Drum On the Bata drum, one head is larger than the other. On the Dundun drum, both heads are equal sizes. The Dundun Drum
Talking Drums The heads of the drum are made from the skin of some animal, often a goat. There are strings lining the drum from top to bottom, connecting the heads. The drums are played by squeezing the middle strings underneath the player’s arm, which causes the drum head to tighten. They then strike the drum, with a curved piece of wood.
z=A*Jn(wr/c)sin(w*t)sin(n*Θ) t=time, w=constant parameter, A= parameter, and r=radius of drum c=√(T/P) where T= tension, p=density/area As we see from the drum equation, the tension, denoted as T, affects the displacement, and therefore the sound of the drum. The tightening changes the tension on the head of the drum, therefore changing the sound that we hear. The Yoruba people have been able to influence the tension and other factors such that the sound we hear resembles the Yoruba spoken language.
“Talking” Drums The drummers are able to communicate verses from their religious scripture to the listeners. Certain passages are “spoken” by the drums, and understood by the listeners. However, the drummers can only “speak” the passages that are understood; they cannot make up their own sentences, or the understanding may be lost.
Traditionally, when the drummers perform for a ceremony, they play in the call-and-response style. Typically five drummers in African performances. One drummer starts off with a passage, and the other drummers answer with another passage, and the two go back and forth. This passage exchange is what is meant by a “conversation” of drums.
Music Produced Rarely written down Though difficult, actually can be broken down by western standards 4/4 or 6/8 time signature http://www.free- scores.com/boutique/boutique-uk-frame- eur.php?clef=80766 http://www.free- scores.com/boutique/boutique-uk-frame- eur.php?clef=80766
Dancing Symbolic Jumping represents leaving earth for heavens Spirit Possession; dance around, until spirit of divinity or ancestor takes ahold, then body goes into convulsions as it is possessed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= sCv03EolhMQ&feature=related
Cuban HistoryCuban History Slaves imported from West Africa bought in Yoruba culture, Cuban religion is today known as Santeria Due to slavery and anti-African Spanish, difficult to practice religion Began to hide religious objects against proselytizing masters and society Different approach to music than Africans
Types of Drums (Cuba) Bata drums of different material 3 Players instead of 5, 6/8 time signature Religious: Identical to Nigerian, people who play them, consecration Social: Metal straps, non-consecrated