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English 7 Parts of Speech Review

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1 English 7 Parts of Speech Review
Prepositions English 7 Parts of Speech Review

2 Parts of Speech Quick Review
Verbs Nouns Pronouns Interjections Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions

3 Word that names Noun: A Person A Place A Thing An Idea

4 Kinds of Nouns CONCRETE NOUNS are nouns that you can see, hear, touch, smell, or taste. ABSTRACT NOUNS are nouns that you cannot see, hear, touch, smell, or taste. They are ideas, qualities, and feelings that cannot be seen or touched. A COMMON NOUN names a general person, place, thing, or idea. It does not refer to something specific. A PROPER NOUN names a specific person, place, thing, or idea. It refers to a NAME of a noun.

5 A word that expresses action or otherwise helps to make a statement
The Verb A word that expresses action or otherwise helps to make a statement Action Linking “be” verbs & taste feel sound look appear become seem grow remain stay predicate

6 Every sentence must have

7 Kinds of Verbs Action verbs express mental or physical action. Linking verbs make a statement by connecting the subject with a word that describes or explains it. He rode the horse to victory. He has been sick.

8 The Pronoun The pronoun is a word used to replace one or more nouns.
It may stand for a person, place, thing, or idea. Personal Pronouns I, me, my, mine you, your, yours she, her, hers, it, its we, us, our, ours they, them, their, theirs myself yourself

9 Modifies or describes a
The Adjective Answers these questions: Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Did you lose your address book? Which? Is that a wool sweater? What kind? Just give me five minutes. How many?

10 The Adverb How? When? Where? Answers the questions: He ran quickly.
Modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. How? He ran quickly. When? She left yesterday. We went there. Where? It was too hot! To what degree or how much?

11 What is a preposition? A preposition is one of the eight parts of speech. It shows the relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word in the sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, but some prepositions have a couple words in them. There are over 60 common prepositions. You will need to familiarize yourself with all of them.

12 Some Common Prepositions
aboard about above across after against along among around at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in into like of off on over past since through throughout to toward under underneath until up upon with within without

13 Let’s Practice….. {See packet}

14 What follows the preposition?
The noun(s) or pronoun(s) that follow(s) the preposition is/are called the object(s) of the preposition. Usually there is an article or other adjective that comes before the object. For example, find the preposition in this sentence. The dog is chewing on his bone. Now find the object of the preposition.

15 What is a prepositional phrase?
Prepositional Phrases: includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. There will never be a VERB in a prepositional phrase. Preposition: Use list as a reminder Modifiers: Usually adjectives; they describe or explain the object. Object of Preposition: Always a noun or pronoun

16 The dog is chewing on his bone and collar.
The preposition “ON” is showing the relationship between the noun “DOG” and the object BONE. There can be more than one object of a preposition. For example, what is the prepositional phrase in this sentence? The children are inside the classroom.

17 It happened (during [the last] examination).
The preposition never stands alone! noun object of preposition preposition pronoun MODIFIERS preposition object It happened (during [the last] examination).

18 EXAMPLES: Let’s sit under the umbrella.
[prep] [mod.] [object of prep.] We are among good friends. [prep] [mod.] [object of prep.] We must do it for ourselves. [prep] [object of prep.]

19 Where are prepositional phrases located?
A prepositional phrase does not have to end a sentence. You can also begin a sentence with a prepositional phrase, or you can put the prepositional phrase in the middle of the sentence. You will find a casserole in the refrigerator. In the refrigerator you will find a casserole. You will find in the refrigerator a casserole.

20 Where do the commas go? Sometimes when the prepositional phrase is in the beginning or middle of the sentence, a comma or commas is/are needed. For example, why do you need commas in the following sentence? In the cupboard, plates and bowls are located. If there is confusion about the meaning of the sentence, use a comma with your prepositional phrase.

21 Can a pronoun be the “object of the preposition” as well?
Objects of prepositions are sometimes pronouns. Since the subject of a sentence will NEVER be within a prepositional phrase, subject pronouns can’t be used as objects. Do NOT use I, she, he, we, they. Object pronouns must be used. Do use me, him, her, us, them. For example, which pronouns should you use in this sentence? How will she choose between we/us and they/them?

22 May I end a sentence with a preposition?
NO! A preposition MUST have an object, so if you are using correct grammar, your sentences will never end with a preposition. For example, how can you correct these sentences? Where is the party at? [tonight] Who is the letter going to? [Barbara]

23 What if I must end a sentence with a preposition?
If you are having trouble rewording the sentence, there is a chance that your preposition is actually an adverb. Yes, some words can be multiple parts of speech! For example, what parts of speech are “INSIDE” and “OFF”? The children are playing inside. Turn the lights off.

24 How to Identify the Prepositional Phrase
STEP 1 Use your list to identify the PREPOSITION REMEMBER: The preposition STARTS the prepositional phrase. Look for the object (always a noun or a pronoun) Be sure to ask yourself: Is this noun or pronoun describing anything else? REMEMBER: The object ENDS the prepositional phrase. Look for any modifiers. Modifiers are sandwiched between the PREPOSITION and the OBJECT of the preposition. Modifiers EXPLAIN, MODIFY or DESCRIBE the object. STEP 2 STEP 3

25 “DO NOW” Activity Sample:
She met us (at [the] beach) (before daylight.) (prep.) (modifier) (obj.) (prep.) (obj.)

26 4. Come into the garden with me. 4. Come (into the garden) (with me).
1. Upon my arrival, I was whisked into a secret chamber. 1. (Upon [my] arrival), I was whisked (into [a secret] chamber). {prep}[modifier]{object} {prep} {modifiers} {object} 2. I can't complete the report without the information. 2. I can't complete the report (without [the] information) {prep} [modifier] {object} 3. Who says you can go around the world in eighty days? 3. Who says you can go (around [the] world) (in eighty days)? {prep}[modifier]object} {prep}[modifier]{object} 4. Come into the garden with me. 4. Come (into the garden) (with me). {prep}[modifier]{object} {prep}{object}

27 5. She wanted to go to the movies.
(this is an infinitive) {prep}{modifier}{object} 6. The girl from Tampa left her purse in the writing lab. 6. The girl (from Tampa) left her purse (in [the writing] lab). {prep}{object} {prep}{modifiers}{object}

28 7. The stories in that book were translated by my professor.
{prep}{modifier}{object} {prep}{modifier}{object} 8. She was looking for a man with money. 8. She was looking (for a man) (with money). {prep}{modifier}{object} {prep}{object}

29 {prep}{modifier}{object} {prep}{modifier}{object}
9. That picture behind my desk used to hang in the bedroom. 9. That picture (behind [my] desk) used to hang (in [the] bedroom). {prep}{modifier}{object} {prep}{modifier}{object} 10. With a gleam in his eye, Big Dog snatched the pork chop. 10. (With [a] gleam) (in [his] eye), Big Dog snatched the pork chop {prep}{modifier}{object} {prep}{modifier}{object}

30 Are you ready for the Preposition Hunt?
Number your paper 1-18 and skip lines. Find the prepositions located on Post-Its throughout the room. Write a sentence with each preposition on each Post-It. The preposition should show a relationship between objects that are located near the Post-It.

31 PREPOSITION HUNT Every preposition is numbered.
Write the sentences next to the correct numbers. When you finish, identify the prepositional phrase with (parenthesis.) Label each part: Preposition Modifiers Object of the preposition For example, you could write the following for the preposition by. The printer is BY the COMPUTER.

32 Sample Sentences 1.The garbage can is below the bulletin board.
2. The cardinal is on the radio. 3. The tissue box is between the house and the candle. 4. The plant is under the butterfrog. 5. The crucifix is above the light switch. 6. The chair is against the wall. 7. The signatures are around the photographs.

33 PREPOSITION HUNT 8. The feathers are behind the plant.
9. The speaker is beside the SmartBoard. 10. The marker is by the eraser. 11. The books are in the basket. 12. The pens are with pencils. 13. The classmates are near each other.

34 PREPOSITION HUNT 14. The Post-It is hanging off the pinecone.
15. The tissues are within the box. 16. The dog house is without a dog. 17. The journals are located past the labels. 18. The coat is hanging over the chair.

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