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Plant Identification ANSC 110 September 7, 2010. What Defines a “Good” Pasture Species? Palatable* Nutritious Dense growing Hearty (recovers well) Tolerant.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Identification ANSC 110 September 7, 2010. What Defines a “Good” Pasture Species? Palatable* Nutritious Dense growing Hearty (recovers well) Tolerant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Identification ANSC 110 September 7, 2010

2 What Defines a “Good” Pasture Species? Palatable* Nutritious Dense growing Hearty (recovers well) Tolerant to climatic extremes Resistant to pests

3 Forage Classification GRASSES Perennials Cool Season Warm Season Annuals Cool Season Warm Season LEGUMES Perennials Cool Season Warm Season Annuals Cool Season Warm Season

4 Plant Vocabulary Grass: monocots (one seed leaf) herbaceous plant parallel leaf veins fibrous root system bear seed on an elongated seed stalk Legume: dicots (two seed leaves) “netted” leaf veins usually have a taproot produce seed in a pod nitrogen fixation

5 Grass or Legume?

6 Plant Vocabulary Annual: A plant that germinates, grows, reproduces, and dies in one growing season Perennial: A plant that has the ability to live for more than one year Biennials – weak perennials that usually die after the second growing season

7 Plant Vocabulary Warm Season Plants: plants that begin growth and/or are planted in the spring or early summer and do most of their growth during the warmest part of the year Cool Season Plants: plants that begin growth and/or are planted in the fall or early spring and do most of their growth during the coolest months of the year (except during winter)

8 Grasses About 40 species commonly used for pastures Monocots (monocotyledons) Identification: Parts of the plant Inflorescence Root system Color Growth habit

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10 Grasses – Plant Parts Parts of the stem (culm) Node – solid joint of a grass stem where leaf sheaths are attached to stem Internode – region of the stem between the nodes

11 Grasses – Plant Parts Parts of the leaf Blade – portion of leaf connected to the sheath Sheath – surrounds the stem above the node where it is attached Collar – region at the junction of the sheath and blade Ligule – appendage that clasps the stem where the sheath and blade join Auricle – outgrowths from the base of the blade

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13 Collar Region - Ligule Fringed/HairyAbsentMembranousRounded Truncated/ShortToothedTapered Photos © University of California, IPM project

14 Collar Region - Auricles Claw-like Rounded Underdeveloped Absent Photos © University of California, IPM project

15 Collar Region - Sheath Closed Split Overlapping Photos © University of California, IPM project

16 Plant Characteristics Inflorescence (plant head, seed, flower/fruit) Panicle – many branches Spike – unbranced axis Raceme – spikelets on one branch Awns – appendage on ends of seeds Length, number

17 Types of Inflorescences

18 Awns Annual Ryegrass AWNS Perennial Ryegrass NO AWNS

19 Plant Characteristics - Roots Root System Rhizomes Stolons Fibrous

20 Root System Photos © University of California, IPM project Fibrous - Rhizomes Fibrous - Bunchgrass Fibrous - Stolons Taproot

21 Plant Characteristics - Color Bermudagrass Orchardgrass

22 Plant Characteristics - Leaf growth Folded Rolled

23 Common Characteristics of Some Pasture Species GRASSES

24 Timothy Phleum pratense Cool season perennial Medium height Haplocorm in mature plants Leaf blades are rolled Gently ribbed upper, smooth under Seedhead = compact panicle No auricles Pointed or rounded ligule Round sheath

25 Timothy Seedheads of timothy grass

26 Orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata Cool season perennial Tall-growing, bunch grass No rhizomes or stolons Folded leaf blades Sheath flattened No auricles Membranous ligule Seedhead - clustered spikelet; seeds are slightly curved

27 Orchardgrass Seedheads Folded Leaf Blades

28 Kentucky Bluegrass Poa pratensis Cool season perennial Short - medium height, sod- forming (rhizomes) Folded leaves Boat-shaped tips Green/Dark green in color No auricles Collar sometimes hairy Membranous ligule Seedhead - open pyramidal panicle

29 Kentucky Bluegrass…

30 Tall Fescue Festuca arundinacea Cool season perennial Bunchgrass (short rhizomes) Coarse, tough roots Ribbed leaves (serrated edges) Auricles blunt with fine hairs Short membranous ligule Seedhead = branched panicle with elliptical spikelets Seeds have a short awn Collar of tall fescue

31 Tall fescue…

32 Reed Canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea Leaves rolled No auricles Collar may be divided Large membranous toothed ligule, sometimes hairy on back Wide leaf blade, smooth Seedhead - densely flowered, spreading to narrow panicle

33 Reed Canarygrass

34 Crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis Warm season annual Reaches 2-4 ft. in height Creeping grass, long runners Wide leaves hairy at base Rolled leaves Stiff ligule Seedhead spikes at top of stems

35 (Winter) Wheat Triticum aestivum Cool season annual Rolled leaves Round, smooth split sheath Broad collar Small hairy auricles Membranous ligule Long rounded blades Seedhead - Crowded thick spike, long awns

36 Wheat…

37 Smooth Bromegrass Bromus inermis Cool season perennial Sod-forming (deep-rooted rhizomes) Blades narrow No auricles Ligule – membranous, truncate to rounded Round sheath Seedhead - Open panicle; 5 to 11 florets per spikelet 'W'-shaped constriction at approximately the midpoint of the leaf blade.

38 Smooth Bromegrass

39 Annual Ryegrass Lolium multiflorum Cool season annual Bunch grass High palatability and digestibility Rolled leaves, prominently ridged on upper surface; smooth glossy and hairless on under surface Claws on auricle Membranous ligule sometimes with hairs Seedhead - solitary spike with alternately arranged spikelets; seeds have awns

40 Annual Ryegrass

41 Perennial Ryegrass Lolium perenne L. Cool season perennial Good for erosion prevention Quick to establish Undersurface of leaves is shiny dark green leaves are folded Inflorescence stems are nearly naked Seedhead - spikes with spikelets growing edgewise to seedhead stem; No awns

42 Perennial Ryegrass

43 Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Warm season perennial Good for erosion control (sod- forming) May become invasive Spreads by rhizomes, stolons and seed Stems are short-jointed Leaves are flat and spreading Leaves may be hairy or smooth Seedhead = two rows of spikelets on finger-like spikes White collar region with sparse, relatively long hairs

44 Bermudagrass

45 Common Characteristics of Some Pasture Species LEGUMES

46 Legumes Dicot plants Two seed-bearing leaves Legume roots host Rhizobium bacteria Often have taproots Trifoliate leaves Shape of leaflets Texture (hairy, shiny, etc.)

47 Legume – Plant Parts Petiole – the stalk by which a leaf is attached to the stem (leafstalk) Stipules – a pair of leaf-like outgrowths / appendages that occur at the base of the petiole Stolons – shoot that bends to the ground or that grows horizontally above ground

48 Legume Plant Parts

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50 Inflorescence – Legumes/ Weeds

51 Alfalfa Medicago sativa Cool-season perennial inches tall Pinnately trifoliate leaves arranged alternately on the stem Leaves are toothed towards the tips Slender stipules fused to the petiole Flowers - generally pink- purple, but may be white or yellow

52 Alfalfa…

53 Ladino Clover Trifolium repens Giant form of white clover Cool season perennial Spread by stolons 8-12 inches tall Tri-foliate leaves, shiny underneath, often marked with v-shaped pattern Flower - White ball-shape

54 Ladino Clover…

55 Red Clover Trifolium pratense Cool season perennial Hairy leaves and stems Erect – grows 2-3 feet tall Large leaves, prominent v-shaped water mark Flower - pinkish-violet in dense clusters

56 Red Clover…

57 Birdsfoot Trefoil Crimson CloverSericea Lespedeza Crown Vetch

58 USEFUL WEBSITES West Virginia University – NRCS Forage Identification Slide Set USDA Plants Fact Sheets Database Click on Fact Sheets and Plant Guides on left column Purdue Forage Information (great photos!) Forage Identification and Use Guide (Univ. of Kentucky)


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