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Plant Classification & Identification Junior High Agriculture.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Classification & Identification Junior High Agriculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Classification & Identification Junior High Agriculture

2 Life Cycle Annual – completes life in one growing season  Stages - germination, growth, flowering, death  Examples – marigolds, corn, soybeans, impatiens, zinnias, wheat

3 Life Cycle Biennial – completes life in two growing seasons  Stages - germination, growth, dormancy, growth (season 2), flowering, death  Examples – musk thistle, cabbage, primrose

4 Life Cycle Perennial – will live for more than two growing seasons  Stages - germination, growth, flowering, dormancy, growth, flowering, etc.  May be woody or herbaceous  Examples – Kentucky bluegrass, bur oak, alfalfa, lilac, white clover

5 Growth Habit Trees – woody perennials with a single, erect trunk Shrubs – Woody perennials with more than one main trunk Cacti – Perennials with spines and green fleshy stems

6 Growth Habit Grasses – plants with jointed, round hollow stems, and parallel veins in leaves Grass-likes – look similar to grasses without joints, triangular or round stems Forbs – herbaceous broadleaf plants generally netlike veins in leaves

7 Foliage Retention Deciduous – lose all leaves in autumn Evergreen – retain leaves and remain green throughout the year  Drop leaves throughout year, just not all at once  Broad-leaf or Needle-leaf

8 Leaf Characteristics Five common characteristics of leaves used for identification  Leaf arrangement on the stem  Leaf venation pattern  Complexity of the leaf  Leaf shape  Leaf surface

9 Arrangement on Stem Alternate – only 1 leaf per node Opposite – 2 leaves per node Whorled – 3 or more leaves per node

10 Venation Pattern Parallel – major veins run the length of the leaf, parallel to the midrib, veins are about equal in size, found in grasses and grass-likes Pinnate – have one major vein, with secondary veins branching from the midrib, found in trees, shrubs, and forbs Palmate – have three or more major veins extending from the base of the blade and secondary veins branching from the main veins, found in trees, shrubs, and forbs

11 Venation Pattern ParallelPinnatePalmate

12 Leaf Complexity Simple – only 1 blade Compound – several leaflets attached to a common leaf stalk  Palmately divided – all leaflets branching from 1 point  Pinnately divided – leaflets arranged along both sides of the leaf stalk (Even or Odd)  Twice or Bi-pinnately divided – leaf stalk has 2 or more branches from main stalk

13 Leaf Complexity PalmateSimple Even PinnateOdd PinnateTwice Pinnate

14 Leaf Shapes Cordate – heart-shaped Deltoid – triangular shaped Elliptical – broad in middle, tapers at both ends Lanceolate – narrow with widest point at base Linear – much longer than wide, sides parallel Ovate – wide and broad at the base

15 Leaf Shapes LanceolateLinearOvate CordateDeltoidElliptical

16 Leaf Margins Crenate – broad, round teeth with narrow, open spaces between them Dentate – sharp teeth pointing outward Entire – margin is smooth with no teeth or indentations Lobed – indentations from ¼ to all of the way to the midrib Serrate – saw-like teeth that are pointed forward

17 Leaf Margins LobedSerrate CrenateDentateEntire

18 Leaf Surface Glabrous – surface is free of hairs Glandular – surface has small glands which secrete resin Hirsute – stiff hairs cover the surface Pubescent – soft, short hairs cover the leaf surface Scabrous – surface is rough to the touch, similar to sandpaper

19 Inflorescence Types The flower inflorescence is the arrangement of the flowers on the stem. A few common types are:  Corymb – short, broad, flat-topped  Head – dense cluster of stalkless flowers  Panicle – flowers developing toward the tips of the branches as the elongate  Raceme – flowers arranged along a main axis on short stems  Spadix – very small flowers massed together, enclosed in a spathe  Spike – flowers along a single axis  Umbel – flat-topped cluster of flower, no central axis

20 Inflorescence Types CorymbHeadPanicleRaceme

21 Inflorescence Types SpadixSpikeUmbel

22 Tree Fruits Drupe – fleshy with a single stone or pit (cherry) Berry – fleshy with several seeds (persimmon) Pome – fleshy outer coat and stony layer and several seeds within (apple, pear) Legume – dry, elongated pod that splits in two with several seeds along one edge (honeylocust) Capsule – dry fruit that splits to reveal many seeds inside (catalpa)

23 Tree Fruits Achene – small, dry, and hard one seeded fruit, often tightly packed together with hundreds of fruits (sycamore) Samara – one or two flat wings attached to a seed (maple) Nut – hard, with an outer husk that does not split open readily and an inner papery to woody shell (black walnut) Acorn – nut-like fruit of an oak, with a scaly or warty cap

24 Tree Fruits LegumeCapsule DrupeBerryPome

25 Tree Fruits NutAcorn AcheneSamara

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