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Identifying Turfgrasses Agents Commercial Ornamental Horticulture In-service Training - May, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Identifying Turfgrasses Agents Commercial Ornamental Horticulture In-service Training - May, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identifying Turfgrasses Agents Commercial Ornamental Horticulture In-service Training - May, 2005

2 Common Turfgrasses in Tennessee Warm-season BermudagrassBermudagrass ZoysiaZoysia CentipedegrassCentipedegrass St. AugustinegrassSt. AugustinegrassCool-season Tall fescueTall fescue Fine fescuesFine fescues Kentucky bluegrassKentucky bluegrass Perennial ryegrassPerennial ryegrass Annual ryegrassAnnual ryegrass

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4 Growth Habit Bunch: spread by tilleringBunch: spread by tillering –Uniformity is problem long term or at low seeding rates –Tall, Chewings and Hard Fescues, and Annual and Perennial Ryegrasses

5 Growth Habit RhizomatousRhizomatous –Below-ground lateral shoots –Storage organs Uniform turfsUniform turfs Sod productionSod production Bermudagrass, Kentucky Bluegrass, Creeping Red Fescue and ZoysiaBermudagrass, Kentucky Bluegrass, Creeping Red Fescue and Zoysia

6 Growth Habit StoloniferousStoloniferous –Above-ground lateral shoots –Foraging organ; grow faster than rhizomes Uniform turfsUniform turfs –Close mowing preferred Sod productionSod production Bermudagrass and ZoysiaBermudagrass and Zoysia

7 A Turfgrass Plant

8 Vernation FoldedRolled

9 Leaf Tip Rounded Boat-shaped Pointed

10 Ligule

11 Collar

12 Auricles

13 Tall Fescue Growth habit: bunch Vernation: rolled Ligule: med.( mm), blunt Auricles: short, blunt, hairs Collar: broad, divided, short hairs Blade: wide (5-10 mm), flat, stiff (coarse leaf)

14 Vernation: foldedVernation: folded Ligule: membranous, 0.5 mm, bluntLigule: membranous, 0.5 mm, blunt Auricles: noneAuricles: none Collar: narrow, continuousCollar: narrow, continuous Blade: 11/2 - 3 mm, often remaining foldedBlade: 11/2 - 3 mm, often remaining folded

15 Hard fescue (Festuca longifolia) Growth habit: bunchGrowth habit: bunch Very stiff leaves, wider than sheep fescueVery stiff leaves, wider than sheep fescue More tolerant of moist, fertile soils than sheep fescueMore tolerant of moist, fertile soils than sheep fescue Uses: shade mixtures and soil stabilizationUses: shade mixtures and soil stabilization

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17 Poa spp. Most commonly used temperate grassMost commonly used temperate grass More than 200 speciesMore than 200 species Vernation: foldedVernation: folded Auricles: noneAuricles: none Leaf blade: boat-shaped tip; distinct central vein + parallel light veinsLeaf blade: boat-shaped tip; distinct central vein + parallel light veins Growth habit: bunch, stoloniferous or rhizomatous depending on speciesGrowth habit: bunch, stoloniferous or rhizomatous depending on species Cutting height: 1 to 4 inchesCutting height: 1 to 4 inches

18 Ligule: membranous, very short ( mm), bluntLigule: membranous, very short ( mm), blunt Collar: broad, dividedCollar: broad, divided Leaf blades: smooth, central vein, boat- shaped tipLeaf blades: smooth, central vein, boat- shaped tip

19 Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) Damp/moist, fertile soils Sun to shade Major component of many golf greens (unintentionally) and lawns – often form conspicuous patches

20 Ligule: long (0.8 – 3mm), membranous, pointedLigule: long (0.8 – 3mm), membranous, pointed Collar: broad, dividedCollar: broad, divided Blade: two - 3 mm wide; light- to dark-green ecotypesBlade: two - 3 mm wide; light- to dark-green ecotypes

21 Wrinkled leaves Long ligule Seed producer (1,190,000 seeds / lb.)

22 Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis) Growth habit: stoloniferous Fine-textured, light green Damp/moist, fertile soils Poor heat/drought tolerance Moderate to heavy shade –turns brown & thins out in sun during summer –*Overseeding bermudagrass

23 Ligule: long (2 - 6 mm) membranous, pointed or notchedLigule: long (2 - 6 mm) membranous, pointed or notched Collar: broad, dividedCollar: broad, divided Blades: one - 4 mm wide; glossyBlades: one - 4 mm wide; glossy surface; sheath has “onion-skin” look surface; sheath has “onion-skin” look

24 Weak, small and short stolon Rough bluegrass

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26 Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) English ryegrassEnglish ryegrass Growth habit: bunchGrowth habit: bunch Origin: British IslesOrigin: British Isles Annual or perennial according to locationAnnual or perennial according to location

27 Vernation: foldedVernation: folded Ligule: mm, membranous, blunt to roundedLigule: mm, membranous, blunt to rounded Auricles: small, claw-likeAuricles: small, claw-like Collar: broad, dividedCollar: broad, divided Blades: flat, 2-5 mm wide; glossy undersideBlades: flat, 2-5 mm wide; glossy underside

28 Other ID tips Very red at the base Seeds are wider above the mid-point Perennial ryegrass

29 Italian ryegrassItalian ryegrass Annual or short-lived perennialAnnual or short-lived perennial Growth habit: bunchGrowth habit: bunch Vernation: rolledVernation: rolled Ligule: ½ - 2 mm, membranous, roundedLigule: ½ - 2 mm, membranous, rounded Auricles: pointed, claw-likeAuricles: pointed, claw-like Collar: broad, continuousCollar: broad, continuous

30 awns foldedrolled Annual ryegrassPerennial ryegrass

31 Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) Most common southern turfgrass; highly variableMost common southern turfgrass; highly variable Several species and hybrids:Several species and hybrids: –Common = Cynodon dactylon (18 chromosomes) –African = C. transvaalensis (36 chromosomes) –Hybrids: C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis; Sterile

32 Bermudagrass Vernation: foldedVernation: folded Ligule: fringe of hairsLigule: fringe of hairs Auricles: noneAuricles: none Collar: continuous, narrow to broadCollar: continuous, narrow to broad Blades: flat, mm wide, smooth or hairy above & belowBlades: flat, mm wide, smooth or hairy above & below Growth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatousGrowth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

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35 Zoysia (Zoysia spp.) Three species used for turf:Three species used for turf: –Japanese lawngrass = Zoysia japonica –Manilagrass = Zoysia matrella –Mascarenegrass = Zoysia tenuifolia

36 Zoysia Vernation: rolledVernation: rolled Auricles: noneAuricles: none Ligule: fringe of hairsLigule: fringe of hairs Collar: broad, continuous, w/ long hairsCollar: broad, continuous, w/ long hairs Blades: flat, 2-4 mm wide, stiff, long hairs on top (bottom)Blades: flat, 2-4 mm wide, stiff, long hairs on top (bottom) Growth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatousGrowth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

37 pointed, stiff, upright leaves

38 Centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides) Moderately coarse - texturedModerately coarse - textured StoloniferousStoloniferous Adaptation and UsesAdaptation and Uses –Coastal, southern transition zone –Lawns, rights-of-way Use is increasingUse is increasing

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40 Coarse-texturedCoarse-textured StoloniferousStoloniferous Leaf blade constricted at the baseLeaf blade constricted at the base

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