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1 Plant Identification Melissa Graves Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Plant Identification Melissa Graves Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Plant Identification Melissa Graves Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist

2 Outline Basic plant parts Characteristics used for plant ID Plants currently listed on the high priority list

3 3 Basic plant parts roots stems internode node leaves flower/fruit

4 Leaves –Arrangement –Parts –Types –Shapes –Margins Identifying Characteristics

5 Flowers –Symmetry –Shape –Location Fruit types Root systems Identifying Characteristics

6 6 Leaf arrangement

7 Alternate Opposite Whorled

8 Leaf Parts

9 Leaf type

10 Simple leaf Compound leaf

11 11 Leaf shape

12 Linear leaf Elliptic leaf Cordate leaf

13 13 Leaf margin

14 14 Entire margin Lobed margin Dentate margin Sinuate margin

15 Flower Symmetry

16 Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry

17 Flower Shapes

18 Cruciform Ligulate Papilionaceous (Pea flower)

19 Inflorescence Types

20 Corymb Umbel

21 Head (capitulum) Helicoid cyme Raceme

22 Fruit Types

23 Achene Silicle Nutlet

24 Root Systems

25 Outline Basic plant parts Characteristics used for plant ID Plants currently listed on the high priority list

26 Curlyleaf Pondweed Aquatic plant, leaves submersed Leaves narrowly oblong, curly margined Leaves clasping to stem Forms dense mats

27 Similar Species

28 Bluish-green leaves with white mid-vein Flat-topped to umbrella-shaped clusters of yellow flowers 1-4 ft. tall Purplish brown to black teardrop-shaped seeds Dyers Woad Photos by Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

29 Oregon State University uspest.org Missouri Flora www.missouriplants.com Michael L. Charters www.calflora.net Tumblemustard Unbranched lower stem, bushy upper stem Lower leaves broad and divided almost to mid-vein Upper leaves with narrow, linear lobes Flowers white to pale yellow Similar Species

30 Western Wallflower (Native) Basal leaves spreading, linear-elliptical shaped Leaf margins toothed (dentate) Leaf surface with fine hairs Flowers bright yellow to yellow-orange Inflorescence tight, terminal raceme National Park Service www.nps.gov

31 Similar Species Yellow Alyssum Stems branching at base, 3-10 inches in height Short, narrow leaves Stems and leaves covered with fine hairs Flowers white to pale yellow Inflorescence tight, terminal raceme Mark Turner www.pnwflowers.com Wikipedia www.commons.wikipedia.org Matt Lavin gemini.oscs.montana.edu

32 Eurasian Watermilfoil Aquatic perennial 4 whorled leaves at each stem joint >14 paired leaflets/leaf give feathery appearance Foliage does not collapse when removed from water Inconspicuous pink flowering spike above water surface Stem width twice as wide below flower spike

33 Native Watermilfoils Distinguishing from Eurasian Stem width remains constant below flowering spike Sparse branching near water surface Short-spike –<14 paired leaflets/leaf Whorl-leaf (western) –Bracts longer than flowers Drawings by Hilary Parkinson, MSU

34 Flowering Rush Aquatic perennial Creeping rhizomes and bulblets (not in PNW) Erect or floating leaves, 3 ft. long and ½ inch wide Triangular cross-section Umbrella-shaped clusters of pink to white flowers with 3 petals Photos by Leslie Mehrhoff, Univ. of CT, Bugwood.org

35 Knotweed Complex Japanese, Giant, Himalayan –Separated by leaf shape and size Hollow, smooth, jointed stems Base of stem surrounded by membranous sheath Up to 20 ft. tall (depending on species) Small greenish-white flowers in sprays Photo by Leslie Mehrhoff, Univ. of CT, Bugwood.org

36 Purple Loosestrife Height often 6-8 feet Leaves smooth margined; either opposite or whorled on stem Flowers rose-purple with 5-7 petals Inflorescence is a long terminal raceme Typically found in moist or marshy sites Elizabeth J. Czarapata dnr.wi.gov Kentucky Division of Forestry www.forestry.ky.gov

37 Similar Species Fireweed (Native) Up to 9 feet tall Leaves lance-shaped, up to 8 inches long Flowers rose to purple (4 petals); inflorescence a long terminal raceme Flowers have linear bracts J.K. Lindsey www.commanster.eu Walter Siegmund en.wikipedia.org University of Northern British Columbia web.unbc.ca Matt Lavin gemini.oscs.montana.edu

38 Rush Skeletonweed dandelion from hell Sharp, deeply toothed rosette leaves Yellow flower Downward bent, coarse hairs on lower stem Gary Old, Bugwood.org Utah St. University, Bugwood.org Gary Piper, Washington State Univ., Bugwood.org

39 Brian Peterson www.tolweb.org National Park Service www.nps.gov Jim Pisarowicz www.nps.gov Similar Species Skeletonweed Up to 18 inches tall Stems lacking hairs Leaves small, linear, upper leaves reduced to awl-like projections Flowers light purple Basal leaves absent

40 Scotch Broom Woody shrub, up to 10 ft tall Bright yellow pea flowers Inflorescences terminal and axillary Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods only hairy on the margins

41 Similar Species Striated Broom Currently found in California and Oregon Bright yellow pea flowers Terminal inflorescence Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods very hairy

42 Similar Species Whitespanish Broom Currently found in California, Oregon, and Washington White pea flowers Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods very hairy

43 Similar Species Yellow Sweetclover Annual to short-lived perennial Found throughout the United States Yellow pea flowers Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods small Photo by Steve Dewey, Utah State University Photo by Steve Dewey, Utah State University Photo by Mary Ellen Harte (bugwood.org)

44 Yellow Starthistle Annual Single yellow flower per branch ¾ -1 inch spines radiating from flower bracts Grayish-green foliage Vertical leaves along stem give stem a winged appearance Photos by Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

45 Similar Species U.S. Fish & Wildlife www.fws.gov Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board www.nwcb.wa.gov Joseph M. DiTomaso www.invasive.org Spotted Knapweed Basal leaves long, very dissected Upper leaves narrow Foliage gray-green, hairy Flowers normally purple, may also be white or cream Stiff bracts with hairy margins and dark tips

46 Similar Species Diffuse Knapweed Stems rough, 1-2 feet tall Most leaves pinnately divided Flower heads narrow, may be white to purple Margins of bracts comb-like Montana Weed Control Association www.mtweed.org Salt Lake County Weed Control www.weeds.slco.org Montana Department of Ag agr.mt.gov

47 Hydrilla Leaves in whorls of 3-6 Leaves strap shaped, minutely saw-toothed (serrate) margins Tiny white flowers, rarely seen Reproduces by stem fragmentation and tubers Not currently found in Montana

48 Quiz Time Which plant is purple loosestrife? A B

49 Which plant is dyers woad? A B C

50 Which plant is Eurasian Watermilfoil? A B

51 Additional Resources Bugwood Network (http://wiki.bugwood.org/Main_Page) High Plains IPM (http://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Main_Page) Montana Extension (http:/www.msuextension.org) Montana Weed Control Association (MWCA website www.mtweed.org/ ) Schutter Diagnostic Lab (http://diagnostics.montana.edu) USDA Plants Database (http://plants.usda.gov) Weeds of the West. Whitson, T.D. et al. 2006.

52 52 Questions? For more information contact: Melissa Graves Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist (406)994-6297; melissa.graves@montana.edu


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