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Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist

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Presentation on theme: "Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist"— Presentation transcript:

1 Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist
Plant Identification Melissa Graves Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist

2 Outline Basic plant parts Characteristics used for plant ID
Plants currently listed on the “high priority list”

3 Basic plant parts roots stems internode node leaves flower/fruit

4 Identifying Characteristics
Leaves Arrangement Parts Types Shapes Margins

5 Identifying Characteristics
Flowers Symmetry Shape Location Fruit types Root systems

6 Leaf arrangement

7 Opposite Alternate Whorled

8 Leaf Parts

9 Leaf type

10 Simple leaf Compound leaf Simple leaf – purple loosestrife
Compound leaf – Eurasian watermilfoil (note paired linear leaflets)

11 Leaf shape

12 Elliptic leaf Linear leaf Cordate leaf
Purple loosestrife – linear leaf Dyer’s woad – elliptic leaf Knotweed – cordate leaf Linear leaf Cordate leaf

13 Leaf margin

14 Entire margin Lobed margin Dentate margin Sinuate margin
Purple loosestrife – entire margin Rush skeletonweed - dentate margin Spotted knapweed – lobed margin Curlyleaf pondweed – sinuate margin Dentate margin Sinuate margin

15 Flower Symmetry

16 Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry
Actinomorphic (radial) flower. Imagine drawing multiple lines through the flower

17 Flower Shapes

18 Cruciform Ligulate Cruciform flower Papilionaceous (Pea flower)

19 Inflorescence Types

20 Corymb Umbel Dyer’s woad – corymb Oxeye daisy - head
Purple loosestrife – raceme Flowering rush – umbel Blueweed – helcoid cyme

21 Head (capitulum) Raceme Helicoid cyme Dyer’s woad – corymb
Oxeye daisy - head Purple loosestrife – raceme Flowering rush – umbel Blueweed – helcoid cyme Helicoid cyme

22 Fruit Types

23 Achene Silicle Nutlet Silicles – dyer’s woad
Achene – curlyleaf pondweed Nutlets - houndstongue

24 Root Systems

25 Outline Basic plant parts Characteristics used for plant ID
Plants currently listed on the “high priority list”

26 Curlyleaf Pondweed Aquatic plant, leaves submersed
Leaves narrowly oblong, curly margined Leaves clasping to stem Forms dense mats

27 Similar Species There are several additional pondweed species found in Montana. Most however are listed as T&E by the USDA. If you feel you could have a pondweed, please send a sample to the Schutter Lab to verify species. Bottom – Alpine pondweed Middle – Illinois pondweed Top – Longleaf pondweed

28 Dyer’s Woad Bluish-green leaves with white mid-vein
Flat-topped to umbrella-shaped clusters of yellow flowers 1-4 ft. tall Purplish brown to black teardrop-shaped seeds Photos by Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

29 Similar Species Tumblemustard Unbranched lower stem, bushy upper stem
Lower leaves broad and divided almost to mid-vein Upper leaves with narrow, linear lobes Flowers white to pale yellow Oregon State University uspest.org Missouri Flora Michael L. Charters

30 Similar Species Western Wallflower (Native) Basal leaves spreading,
linear-elliptical shaped Leaf margins toothed (dentate) Leaf surface with fine hairs Flowers bright yellow to yellow-orange Inflorescence tight, terminal raceme National Park Service National Park Service

31 Similar Species Yellow Alyssum Stems branching at base,
3-10 inches in height Short, narrow leaves Stems and leaves covered with fine hairs Flowers white to pale yellow Inflorescence tight, terminal raceme Matt Lavin gemini.oscs.montana.edu Mark Turner Wikipedia

32 Eurasian Watermilfoil
Aquatic perennial 4 whorled leaves at each stem joint >14 paired leaflets/leaf give “feathery” appearance Foliage does not collapse when removed from water Inconspicuous pink flowering spike above water surface Stem width twice as wide below flower spike

33 Native Watermilfoils Distinguishing from Eurasian
Stem width remains constant below flowering spike Sparse branching near water surface Short-spike <14 paired leaflets/leaf Whorl-leaf (western) Bracts longer than flowers Drawings by Hilary Parkinson, MSU

34 Flowering Rush Aquatic perennial
Creeping rhizomes and bulblets (not in PNW) Erect or floating leaves, 3 ft. long and ½ inch wide Triangular cross-section Umbrella-shaped clusters of pink to white flowers with 3 petals Photos by Leslie Mehrhoff, Univ. of CT, Bugwood.org

35 Knotweed Complex Japanese, Giant, Himalayan
Separated by leaf shape and size Hollow, smooth, jointed stems Base of stem surrounded by membranous sheath Up to 20 ft. tall (depending on species) Small greenish-white flowers in sprays Photo by Leslie Mehrhoff, Univ. of CT, Bugwood.org

36 Purple Loosestrife Height often 6-8 feet Leaves smooth margined;
either opposite or whorled on stem Flowers rose-purple with 5-7 petals Inflorescence is a long terminal raceme Typically found in moist or marshy sites Elizabeth J. Czarapata dnr.wi.gov Elizabeth J. Czarapata dnr.wi.gov Kentucky Division of Forestry

37 Similar Species Fireweed (Native) Up to 9 feet tall
Leaves lance-shaped, up to 8 inches long Flowers rose to purple (4 petals); inflorescence a long terminal raceme Flowers have linear bracts Matt Lavin gemini.oscs.montana.edu University of Northern British Columbia web.unbc.ca J.K. Lindsey Walter Siegmund en.wikipedia.org

38 Rush Skeletonweed “dandelion from hell”
Sharp, deeply toothed rosette leaves Yellow flower Downward bent, coarse hairs on lower stem Utah St. University, Bugwood.org Gary Piper, Washington State Univ., Bugwood.org Gary Old, Bugwood.org

39 Similar Species Skeletonweed Up to 18 inches tall Stems lacking hairs
Leaves small, linear, upper leaves reduced to awl-like projections Flowers light purple Basal leaves absent Brian Peterson Jim Pisarowicz National Park Service

40 Scotch Broom Woody shrub, up to 10 ft tall Bright yellow pea flowers
Inflorescences terminal and axillary Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods only hairy on the margins

41 Similar Species Striated Broom
Currently found in California and Oregon Bright yellow pea flowers Terminal inflorescence Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods very hairy Also called Portuguese broom.

42 Similar Species Whitespanish Broom
Currently found in California, Oregon, and Washington White pea flowers Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods very hairy

43 Similar Species Yellow Sweetclover Annual to short-lived perennial
Found throughout the United States Yellow pea flowers Trifoliate leaves, entire leaflets Seed pods small Photo by Steve Dewey, Utah State University Photo by Mary Ellen Harte (bugwood.org) Photo by Steve Dewey, Utah State University

44 Yellow Starthistle Annual Single yellow flower per branch
¾ -1 inch spines radiating from flower bracts Grayish-green foliage Vertical leaves along stem give stem a winged appearance Photos by Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

45 Similar Species Spotted Knapweed Basal leaves long, very dissected
Upper leaves narrow Foliage gray-green, hairy Flowers normally purple, may also be white or cream Stiff bracts with hairy margins and dark tips Joseph M. DiTomaso U.S. Fish & Wildlife Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board

46 Similar Species Diffuse Knapweed Stems rough, 1-2 feet tall
Most leaves pinnately divided Flower heads narrow, may be white to purple Margins of bracts comb-like Montana Department of Ag agr.mt.gov Montana Weed Control Association Salt Lake County Weed Control

47 Hydrilla Leaves in whorls of 3-6
Leaves strap shaped, minutely saw-toothed (serrate) margins Tiny white flowers, rarely seen Reproduces by stem fragmentation and tubers Not currently found in Montana

48 Quiz Time A B Which plant is purple loosestrife?

49 Which plant is dyer’s woad?
B C

50 Which plant is Eurasian Watermilfoil?
B

51 Additional Resources Bugwood Network (http://wiki.bugwood.org/Main_Page) High Plains IPM (http://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Main_Page) Montana Extension (http:/www.msuextension.org) Montana Weed Control Association (MWCA website ) Schutter Diagnostic Lab (http://diagnostics.montana.edu) USDA Plants Database (http://plants.usda.gov) Weeds of the West. Whitson, T.D. et al

52 Questions? For more information contact: Melissa Graves
Extension Weeds and IPM Specialist (406) ;


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