Presentation on theme: "Supervising Undergraduate Research Projects"— Presentation transcript:
1Supervising Undergraduate Research Projects Julian OldmeadowUniversity of York
2Overview… What is the Undergraduate Project? What is the role of the supervisor?Supervisors’ experiencesStudents’ experiencesWhere does it go wrong?Discussion exercise - “Putting a framework on students’ ideas”
3ThemesFocus on autonomous student-centered learning creates a tension between structure and direction on the one hand, and autonomy and independence on the other.Key theme: balancing these needs to provide “well-supported autonomy”
4What is an UG project?Todd et al. (2004) identify the following characteristics:Typically final (3rd) yearMajor piece of workLearner determines focus and directionWork is carried out on individual basis (but small group projects increasingly common)Work is supervisedWork involves stages, usually including a substantial research componentProlonged engagement with a topicHas both learning and assessment functionsOther functions?
5What is an UG project? A UG project is also… Usually the biggest piece of work a student has tackledPossibly the first major piece of written workAlmost certainly the first experience of the research process from start to finishSubstantial independence is expected
6What is an UG project?Therefore, from a student’s perspective, it can be a very daunting prospect!Students often feel they are ‘working in the dark’Silén (2003) talks about ‘chaos’ and ‘cosmos’ - a period of intellectual confusion (chaos) that precedes a qualitative jump in understanding (cosmos)Intellectual struggle can be emotionally unsettling, but is an inherent part of the experience of autonomyAdequate support is therefore criticalCan you identify with this experience?
7What is an UG project?The UG project is also a daunting prospect for supervisors too…Supervision is demanding and can be stressful“[Supervisors] often have a large number of projects to supervise as well as their normal teaching, administrative and research commitments, and many may not have any supervisory experience”New supervisors often have concerns about their ability to supervise, academic expertise, appropriate standards and institutional climatesVery little training is usually providedIs anyone nervous about having to supervise UG projects?Has anyone had any training?What kind of training would be useful?
8What are its functions?General aim is “to expand the student’s intellectual faculties and capability for learning and problem solving” (Cook, 1980)Specific aims:Advance scientific and technical knowledgeDevelop ability to formulate an answerable research questionEncourage engagement with literature and search toolsDevelop capacity to organize and carry out research programDevelop writing and presentation skillsDevelop ability to draw conclusions from information collectedSupervisor role is oriented around these functions
9What is the role of the supervisor? A range of descriptions/metaphors have been used…Subject expertsGatekeeper of academic standardsResource person and advisorDissertation ‘midwife’Director, project manager, shaperScaffolder and supporterEditorPromoter of student self-efficacy“Guide, philosopher, and friend”
10What is the role of the supervisor? Two broad roles: Educational Guidance and Psychological Momentum (Cook, 1980)Educational guidance:Decision making - topic selection, research question, methodsPlanning - stages and deadlinesScientific training - analysis and deductionTechnical training - statistical analyses, report writingPsychological momentum:Maintenance of student motivationDevelopment of self confidenceGo back to metaphors? Which ones are plausible?
11What is the role of the supervisor? “The key issue for practice is developing a balance between freedom and structure, enabling student autonomy while also providing contact, support and training.” (Todd, et al., 2004).“…to provide sufficient support to cultivate autonomy while recognizing that many students may not feel fully prepared for this form of study.” (Hemmings, 2001)
13Supervision Styles Active Indirect Direct Passive Welcome student contactProvides adviceAsk for opinions, explanations, justificationsActive facilitatorActiveInitiate contactExplicit schedules, contractsTend to be directiveIndirectDirectDon’t arrange meetingsNon-directiveWait for students to think things through & solve problemsGenerally disinterestedUnresponsive to student needsNon-directivePassive
14Key points… UG project has a focus on student-centered learning The supervisor has both educational and psychological rolesBecomes apparent that a key challenge is providing “well-supported autonomy” - how do we promote independence while providing adequate support?“Independence does not involve a hands-off approach. The challenge in the UG dissertation is to provide sufficient support to cultivate autonomy while recognizing that many students may not feel fully prepared for this form of study.” (Hemmings, 2001)
15Supervisor Experiences What are the experiences of supervisors?What are the key issues in practice?What do experienced supervisors see as their key roles and responsibilities?Not much research, but a few surveys available (e.g. Todd et al., 2004)
16Supervisor RolesGeneral awareness of being a ‘facilitator’, helping students make their plans achievableAwareness of balancing student autonomy with supervisor’s directionThis balance may involve shifts at different times…Level of involvement varies across the yearNeed to be forceful and prescriptive in particular situationsOverall need to be flexible and attuned to needs of individual student
17ResponsibilitiesMajor task in identifying the research question, which students often struggle to doEnsure project is feasible in scope and ethicsIdentified a responsibility to evaluate student’s motives and ability, and direct them towards a fitting projectOther responsibilities to advise on methods and assist with practicalities, help with time management and organisation, and provide feedback on write-upNote, supervisors rarely mentioned psychological roles or responsibilities
18Dissertation write-up Level of assistance at the write-up stage was an issue for supervisorsBoth supervisors and students agreed the write-up is the student’s responsibilitySupervisors agreed they should NOT be involved in writing contentSometimes hard to maintain such boundaries, particularly with weaker or non-native English speaking studentsAgain, theme of flexibility and a tailored approach emerged
19Key points from supervisor’s perspective Perceived their role as ‘facilitator’ rather than ‘director’Identified the formulation of a research question as a major taskAgain, key issue is balancing student autonomy with directionLevels of autonomy and direction vary across time and across studentsNeed for a flexible approach that provides direction where needed
20Student PerceptionsTodd, Banister & Clegg (2004) surveyed social science students in SheffieldA number of themes emerged from survey and interviewsAuthenticity and personal ownershipUncertainty and ChallengeTimeSupport
21Authenticity and personal ownership Significance of the project derived largely from the sense of independence and self-directionSense of pride and personal achievementStrong sense of ownership and motivation to succeedSense that the project is an authentic form of assessment due to it being personal
22Uncertainty & Challenge A considerable challenge at many levelsDifficulty formulating an appropriate research questionToo broad, vague, unanswerable, descriptive, over-ambitiousOther difficulties involved locating information and literature, recruiting participants, and applying research methods training to their specific project“the production of a specific research question…constitutes one of the most challenging aspects of dissertation study for undergraduates” AND FOR SUPERVISORS!
23TimeOverwhelming perception that the dissertation required more effort than other modules of equivalent credit valueDemands of project are detrimental to other work, that it “takes over”For some the load related to technical demands (e.g. collecting data), for others to personal enthusiasm related to autonomy and ownershipSo, time demands are high, but so is motivation
24Support What do students expect in terms of support? Guidance on managementMotivation and encouragementAcademic expertise, advice on relevant literature and conceptsKey stages where support was most neededDefining research question and parameters/scope of projectChoosing research methodConstructive criticism and feedback on written work“I had the resources and enthusiasm but was lacking direction. The supervisor had clarity of thinking…They took my ideas and put a framework on it.”
25Supervision StylesStyles varied widely from Formal (fixed timetable, written records of meetings, formal contract) to Informal (initiate preliminary meeting, then leave it to the student)Most students appreciated some formality (e.g. setting date of next meeting, specific tasks, deadlines for milestones)Others appreciated ‘space’ and autonomy“The style of supervision I had worked for me. I had a choice in this--my supervisor asked me at the start how I’d like to be supervised”
26Key points from students’ perceptions Students perceive projects as authentic and having high intrinsic valueStudents value the autonomy and independence projects offer, which is often highly motivatingA big challenge is to produce a researchable question, and students appreciate some formal structuring from supervisor - putting a framework on students’ ideasStudents also value highly the personal support aspects, some seeing this as the most important aspect of supervision
27Where does it go wrong? What are the common problems to look out for? Need to be aware of issues that arise from combining learning and assessment in a single activity…
28Where does it go wrong?Cook (1980) identifies a number of problem areas related to assessment:Differences in attitude to supervisionTopic difficultyStudent dependenceTime allocation for supervisory duties
29Key themes…Tension between structure and direction on the one hand, and autonomy and independence on the other.Balancing these needs to provide “well-supported autonomy”“The key issue for practice is developing a balance between freedom and structure, enabling student autonomy while also providing contact, support and training.” (Todd, et al., 2004).
30Key themes…Identifying an appropriate research question was considered a major challenge for both students and supervisorsA key point at which the autonomy/structure conflict is played outA potentially useful metaphor of “putting a framework on students’ ideas”
31Discussion “Putting a framework on students’ ideas”
32Formulating a research question… What are the common problems with students’ research questions?Want to establish clear ‘cause-effect’ relations within very complex issues - “Do media representations of women encourage sexism?”Too broad or vague - “Are perceptions of people affected by their race?”Unoriginal - “Does personality have an impact on choice of vocation?”Descriptive - “What are the stereotypes of Hong Kong Chinese towards Mainland Chinese?”
33Initial student ideas… “We are looking to develop a project on social perception and social attribution and possibly investigating its relationship with additional concepts such as self-handicapping, depressive-realism hypothesis and the 'belief in a just world'.”
34Initial student ideas… “I am wanting to investigate the halo effect and race, looking to see if white males and females are thought to be more successful, intelligent and so on than people from other ethnic backgrounds.”
35Initial student ideas… “I am currently in my second year and I am very interested in body dismorphia (specifically anorexia nervosa).”
36Initial student ideas… “The effects of education on perception of mental health issues.”
37Initial student ideas… “I have a brief idea for a study, for which I would require multicultural participants. They would be presented with visual stimuli consisting of pictures of members of the opposite sex, who you would vary widely in social status, age and race. They would then be asked to rank them in order of preference.”
38Initial student ideas… “I'm particularly interested in the perception of gender, and what factors in a face cause it to be categorised as male or female. I'm aware of a great deal of research into this already, but am keen on extending it by considering what cues are dominant in the case of ambiguous faces, and more specifically to what extent context and expectation can affect categorisation. I've also wondered about how this would apply in the case of transgender people; whether their faces would be categorised on the physical structure (reflecting biological sex) or stylistic choices in appearance (reflecting gender).”
39Exercise…In small groups, choose one of these student research ideas and discuss how you would advise the studentWhat are the problems with the question?How would it need to change to develop into a researchable question?What sort of ‘framework’ could you put on it to help move the student forward?
40Sources of Support…Departmental guidelines on supervision and UG projectsMentorLiteratureChecklists…
41Example Checklist Determine objectives for the dissertation Ascertain the proportion of total marks allocated for dissertationIdentify key factors on which the dissertation is to be assessedAdvise students as to the main objectives and requirementsGuide student in the selection of topicOutline advantages of a systematic approach to planning and organisationAdvise student on areas of special difficulty, e.g. data collectionProof-read draft and suggest textural and presentational amendmentsRemind student of deadlinesRevise supervisory approach for the next year in light of experience
42Further ReadingArmstrong, M. & Shanaker, V. (1983). The supervision of undergraduate research: student perceptions of the supervisor role. Studies in Higher Education, 8,Beer, R. H. (1995). Guidelines for the supervision of undergraduate research. Journal of Chemical Engineering, 72,Cook, M. (1980). The role of the academic supervisor for undergraduate dissertations in science and science-related subjects. Studies in Higher Education, 5,Keogh, M. (2006). Supervising undergraduate research using online and peer supervision. In M. Huba (Ed), International Virtual University Conference, Bratislava December 2006, pp Technical University Bratislava: Bratislava.Todd, M., Bannister, P. & Clegg, S. (2004). Independent inquiry and the undergraduate dissertation: perceptions and experiences of final year social science students. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29,Todd, M., Smith, K. & Bannister, P. (unpublished manuscript). Supervising a social science undergraduate dissertation: Staff experiences and perceptions.