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Supervision and Leadership

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1 Supervision and Leadership
Motivating workers


3 Alfred Kadushin, the foremost authority in social work supervision, defines supervision as:
the responsibility of sustaining worker morale; helping the worker with job-related discouragements and discontents; giving workers a sense of: worth as professionals; belonging to the agency; security in their performance. What has been your experience with a supervisor?

4 What do supervisors do?

5 Supervisors: Translate the policies and objectives of the agency into specific work duties and timelines; Select the jobs to be completed; Assign workers who will complete the jobs; Determine when the jobs will be completed; Review whether or not the work is being completed and up to agency standards; Evaluate employees;

6 Educate workers on the goals and objectives of the agency;
Assure that employees behave in a manner as though they accept them; Resolve conflict: between workers; Between the agency and workers; Between units within the agency; The supervisor is the bridge between higher levels of administration and the worker.

7 Supervisors: Introduce new workers to the agency and help new workers find their place; Act as liaison between various agencies sharing policy and solving problems in terms of such things as client referral.

8 Leadership and Power What is leadership?

9 Leadership The ability to influence the behavior of individuals or groups. There are two types of overall leadership: formal and informal.

10 Empowerment-oriented leaders
In empowerment-oriented practice, it is important that the executive director establish a vision for the organization. The executive director must create an organizational culture in which staff members and volunteers are client-oriented and are committed to a set of values that supports power-sharing. The executive director must have the ability to inspire and motivate paid as well as unpaid workers. In addition, they must be able to facilitate group-oriented decision-making processes.

11 Formal Leaders Individuals who occupy organizational offices or positions which have power as part of the position.

12 Informal Leaders Individuals who have power with an organization because other personal charisma or other characteristics but do not hold an official position of power.

13 What is power?

14 Power: The force that allows an individual the ability to induce another person to carry out his/her directives or any other value(s) she/he supports.

15 Five Kinds of Power: Reward Power
Remunerative (money) What is the response? Or normative (a pat on the back). BEWARE OF NORMATIVE COMPLIANCE!

16 Coercive Power: The threat of harm or punishment; public humiliation.
What is the response?

17 Legitimate Power The power that comes from holding the position. The source of the powers in the position (formal power).

18 Earned Power The power that comes from earned respect.
What happens if you have legitimate power but no earned power? What happens if you have earned power but no legitimate power?

19 Expert Power Power that comes from having special knowledge and/or skills.

20 Why do people want to become supervisors?

21 Prestige and Status Increased Salaries A Desire to Be a Change Agent Increased Opportunity for Creativity Increased Capacity to Give A Desire to Control People

22 What is a good leader?

23 A good leader and supervisor:
Fosters trust; Builds people rather than tears them down; Is supportive; Is consistent; Is caring; Uses time wisely; Is persistent to their goals; Is willing to compromise; Allows as much freedom is possible; Is creative.

24 What kind of supervisor will you be?

25 Issues of Supervision in the Nonprofit Human Service Agency
Acceptance of the use of authority can be difficult. When you become a supervisor, you step over a boundary. You are no longer a line worker. You may not be loved because you will have to tell people to do things they may not like to do.

26 Quality supervision requires:
Clear and specific worker objectives. Awareness of worker’s needs. Willingness to facilitate the step-by-step progression of workers. A willingness to accept the diversity of workers including differences in viewing the role of working, differences in motivation, differences in interest and differences in cultural perspectives.

27 Social service organizations typically use a number of different measures for performance assessment including: Narrative assessments by supervisors using previously established criteria. Management by objective systems in which the supervisor determines whether the employee has accomplished a predetermined set of objectives. Rating scales and checklists that require the supervisor to make an assessment of the worker’s level of performance on a standardized scale. Comparisons of an individual worker’s performance to those of other workers. For example, workers could be compared in terms of the number of successfully closed cases or the number of clients served on average. Multirater Assessment Systems in which more that one evaluator directly assesses the worker’s skill or performance level.

28 Developing and Measuring Competency
Many organizations and professional associations are now evaluating performance by developing lists of specific skills or competencies that professionally trained workers should possess. Efforts have also been made to create tools or systems of measurement to determine if workers in certain job categories have actually acquired these skills or if they need additional training

29 Worker Empowerment and Supervision
According to Shera and Page (1995) a critical aspect of empowerment-oriented social service organization is that supervisors “promote positive relationships and images through the development of positive language, help staff focus on client strengths, and model appropriate behaviors and values to staff” (p. 4). Peer consultation for staff members who need assistance with workplace issues may also be an effective means to provide support and consequently increase a sense of personal empowerment and autonomy (Shera & Page, 1995). In a study of management practices in empowerment-oriented organizations, Gutierrez et al. (1995) found that the use of peer supervision techniques helped build relationships and support, building a sense of shared philosophy and psychological safety among staff members. Workers can be organized into teams or support groups can be established to facilitate peer consultation and information exchange.

30 Mentoring Another method used to provide peer support involves mentoring. Mentoring has been found to be an effective method of orienting new employees to the workplace and helping them to develop appropriate workplace skills (Dreher & Ash, 1990; Hardina & Shaw, 2001). Kaminski et al. (2000) studied the use of mentors to train workers to act as workplace advocates and leaders. They found that the best mentors repeatedly praised student performance, gave trainees new tasks that involved greater levels of responsibility, and encouraged them to develop their own goals and tactics for producing results. An additional benefit of the mentoring process is that mentors can help marginalized employees (for example, women and persons of color) navigate difficulties in workplace culture that could limit their ability to secure promotions or become administrators (Burke & McKeen, 1990; Ragins, Townsend, & Mattis, 1998).

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