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Administrative Leadership Following Legal Guidelines and Organizational Policies.

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1 Administrative Leadership Following Legal Guidelines and Organizational Policies

2 Role of leadership in empowering workers Shera and Page (1995) define an empowered organization as one in which “leadership and responsibility are shared, communication and interaction patterns are based on principles of empowerment, and organization changes are possible from below as well as from the upper levels of the organization” (p. 3).

3 Spreitzer (1996) identifies three dimensions of psychological empowerment among employees: The degree to which individuals have a choice in determining what they do or how they behave in the workplace. The degree to which employees feel that they can do the job well (self-efficacy). The degree to which employees care about their jobs.

4 A good leader: Establishes trust Inspires workers to do their best Is a role model Provides opportunities for staff and clientele to have input into decision- making Voluntarily gives up some of his or her own power in order to help others develop problem-solving skills, increase their sense of personal self-efficacy, and learn to work autonomously

5 One respondent in a research study conducted by Gutierrez, GlenMaye, & DeLois (1995) stated: Having an administrator on your side as an advocate for consumers and staff is seen by many participants as a critical support for maintaining an atmosphere of empowerment. For instance, one participant stated, “To know that someone’s at your back. Somebody is going to look out for you, [the executive director] you know. She may yell at me later, but she is not going to let nobody else dog me out, you know.” (p. 255)

6 Styles of Leadership Theory X (authoritarian leadership). Theory Y/Human Relations model Charismatic leadership. Transactional leadership. Servant leadership. Transformative leadership.

7 Transformative Leadership is Associated with Empowerment-oriented Management According to Rago (1996), the purpose of adopting a transformative or empowerment- oriented approach is to change or “transform” the behavior of the leader and employees. This change is intended to increase service quality, transfer at least some degree of power and authority to staff, and improve the quality of services provided to consumers. Explicitly in empowerment-oriented social service organizations, the adoption of a transformative approach is also intended to transform clients, facilitate their acquisition of skills, leadership ability, political power, and other resources they need to improve the quality of their lives.

8 The transformative leader Helps develop and articulate shared values among all organization participants Establishes a shared vision for the organization Stimulates professional growth and creativity among staff Stimulates a sense of community among organization members Uses charisma to inspire staff to do their best Emphasizes partnerships between workers and the users of service – within and outside the organization

9 Human Resource Mangement involves: Employee recruitment Hiring and firing staff Staff retention Staff training Providing professional development opportunities for staff Performance assessment Task assignment Volunteer recruitment and training Training, utilizing, and supervising interns Encouraging the various workplace constituency groups to work cooperatively with one another. Fostering a sense of belonging and commitment to the workplace Applying federal, state, and local regulations to hiring, firing, and retaining staff.

10 Regulations pertaining to the use of human resources are: Affirmative Action Equal Pay Act Americans with Disabilities Act Civil Rights Act Age Discrimination Act Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Act California Fair Employment Act Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Guidelines Prohibiting Sexual Harassment (Note: California law also prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation)

11 Regulations pertaining to the use of human resources are: Affirmative Action Equal Pay Act Americans with Disabilities Act Civil Rights Act Age Discrimination Act Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Act California Fair Employment Act Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Guidelines Prohibiting Sexual Harassment (Note: California law also prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation)

12 Americans with Disabilities Act is: Prohibits employment discrimination against persons with disabilities. Requires employers to provide reasonable accommodation in some situations to disabled employees.

13 Affirmative Action : Applies to organizations with Federal contracts Provides guidelines that prohibits employment practices that may result in discrimination. Does not require organizations to use hiring quotas. Does require that the employer recruit applicants from a diverse group of employees. Does require employers to hire a member of a protected group (women or people of color) – but only in situations in which two employees are equally qualified. Requires some employers to file annual affirmative action plans.

14 Sexual Harassment is: Can be either quid pro quo harassment (employee/student) asked for sex in return for promotion, job, good grades, etc. Hostile Work Environment – behaviors that create a work place that is so hostile that interferes with a person’s ability to work or learn. Note: Harassment based on race, ethnicity, age, disability, or religion are also strictly prohibited.

15 Problems with enforcement Harassment is considered a civil violation rather than a criminal act unless it involves violence. For the most part, harassment is addressed through either the EEOC or through the courts. Individuals or groups of people affected must bring complaints. Case (court) law often determines how the act is interpreted and changes constantly. Federal government does monitor federal contractors – but primarily makes sure that contractors have workplace policies. Private employers basically have policies primarily to give them protection from lawsuits

16 To guard against harassment complaints, employers: Have written policies that are enforced. Provide on-going training to staff and supervisors. Require supervisors to report harassment complaints to superiors. Maintain a paper trail when harassment reports are made.

17 Tools for the Human Resource Manager Include On-going assessments of staffing needs. Strategic planning (vision for the organization/goals for the next four or five years – what resources will be needed to meet the goals). Written plan for meeting staffing needs. Standardized performance measures.

18 Strategies for Retention of Staff Recruitment of Skilled Employees Training – staff orientation, skill- building, professional development. Supervision and Mentoring Helping the individual “fit” the job rather than making the job fit the individual Performance Assessment Evaluation Benefit Packages for Employees

19 Types of Performance Assessment Management by objectives Narrative assessments by supervisor using specific criteria Rating scales [with or without behavioral anchors] Comparisons among workers. Multi-rater assessments in which worker skills are evaluate. Development of competencies expected of workers

20 Benefits of Volunteers Low-Cost Labor Help “advertise services” Help give current or former service users the opportunity to give something back to the organization Help the organization to increase its political power – through strength in numbers, financial donations, or political connections.

21 Problems with Volunteers They need training You either need to retain them or engage in on-going recruitment Work expectations may overlap with paid employees Some tasks may not be suitable for untrained workers Paid workers may resent or fail to work cooperatively with them

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