Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Irrigation Considerations for Tobacco by George Duncan & Richard Warner Ext. Agr. Engrs. Biosystems & Agr. Engr. Dept. UK Coll. of Agri., Coop. Ext. Service.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Irrigation Considerations for Tobacco by George Duncan & Richard Warner Ext. Agr. Engrs. Biosystems & Agr. Engr. Dept. UK Coll. of Agri., Coop. Ext. Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 Irrigation Considerations for Tobacco by George Duncan & Richard Warner Ext. Agr. Engrs. Biosystems & Agr. Engr. Dept. UK Coll. of Agri., Coop. Ext. Service For presentation at TOBACCO EXPO 2003 Jan. 22, 2003 Lexington KY

2 Considerations:  Why increasing interest?  Meet Quota, Financial Obligations  Top Quality, Grade  Market Needs, Contract…  Emergency Bail-out? Or Planned Management?  Insurance or Investment?  Buy it, Use when disaster; Not likely profitable…  Invest wisely; manage for profit…  Frequency of Dry Years…  Two Locations  Possible / Potential Results…  Data from several studies…  Systems…  Big Guns, Travelers, Trickle…  Costs…  Annual, Long-term Benefits…

3 It’s a Fact:  In dry weather…  any water applied helps tobacco ever how applied…..  Biggest limitation to Irrigation of Tobacco in KY?  Source of water!  Need to plan for future surface storage! (Ph. I $?)  If time runs out; you don’t follow all details…  Handouts today; on web: Click on Tobacco Equip. & Facilities

4 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Frequency of dry years, Lexington:

5 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Frequency of dry years, Bowling Green:

6 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons UK Spindletop Farm (1984)

7 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons UK Spindletop Farm (1985)

8 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons UK Spindletop Farm (1986)

9 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons UK Spindletop Farm (1987)

10 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons UK Spindletop Farm (1988)

11 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Comparisons (4-5 Yr. Avg.) UK Spindletop Farm:

12 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Summary UK Spindletop Farm ( ) (Yr, Rain+Irrig, Spr., T.row, T.mid) Yield Increase by Irrigation

13 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Irrigation Trials, Anderson Circle Farm Mercer Co No. Irr. 6.3” rain No. Irr., 6.3” rain 4.8” rain, 4.8” rain, +4.5” Irr. 4.8” rain, + 7.” Irr. 6.3” rain ” Irr.

14 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Non Irrig Irrigated Non Irrig. Source: G. Palmer, Year 2000 Trials: “… Too much irrigation especially early in the season can produce a poor root system and reduce yields..”

15 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Non IrrigatedIrrigatedRaised Bed Irrigated Source: G. Palmer, Yr 2001

16 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Burley Irrigation Trials, Highland Rim Exp. Station, TN Source: J. R. Buchanan,

17 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Source: J. R. Buchanan, R=10.71” +2.86” YIELDYIELD ” +1.46” +0” R=4.40” +4.16” +2.65” +1.10” +3.90” Burley Irrigation Trials, Highland Rim Exp. Station, TN

18 WHEW….  Can you guarantee Lbs/Ac of yield increase every year with Irrigation????  200 Lbs?  How much??  Let’s look at some Systems, Features….  & Costs, Long term benefits…

19 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Some useful data for Sprinkler Irrigation:  Soil Water Holding Capacity: Clay inches/ft of soil Clay-loam “ Silt-Loam “ Sandy Loam “  Infiltration (Application) Rate: Clay 0.15 inch/hour Clay-loam 0.30 “ Silt-loam 0.40 “ Sandy Loam 0.15 “  Suggested reduction rates based on slope: slopeRate reduction 0 – 5% 0 % 6 – 8%20% 9 – 12%20% 13-20%60%

20 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Movable Pipe & Sprinklers:: + Irregular shape, slope fields + Medium pressure, Hp (40-60 psi) + More uniform coverage + Medium cost, used Eq. available - High labor - Lots of pipe, sprinklers… - Wet soil for moving (use skip row) - Evaporation losses (25-35%) - Foliar disease potential

21 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Movable Pipe & Sprinkler Layouts::

22 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Movable Pipe & Big Guns:: + Comparable initial costs + Cover larger area/setting + Less labor to move - More uniform shape, slope fields - High pressure, Hp ( psi) - Wet soil for moving (use skip row) - Evaporation losses (25-35%) - Foliar disease potential - Corner coverage??

23 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Flexible Hose & Traveling Gun:: + Cover larger rectangular areas + Lower labor + More uniform coverage than big guns - Higher initial cost, maintenance - High pressure, Hp ( psi) - Field size, slope limitations - Sod or Skip rows needed - Evaporation losses (25-35%) - Foliar disease potential

24 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Trickle (Drip):: + Low pressure + Lower labor to operate + No foliar wetting (less disease?) + Reduced water needs (evapor.) + More uniform coverage (if level terrain) + Possible automation ?? Same growth, yields? - Lay tube after lay-by or ?, salvage after harvest - Annual replacement of tubing - Moderate initial cost, maintenance - Low pressure, Hp (15-30 psi) - Field elevation limitations (zones) - Proper application rate, intervals

25 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Tobacco Drip Irrigation Design, An Example – 5 ac Given: 5 ac. Field Slope = 2% downslope Field Dimensions = 256 ft. x 850 ft. Row Spacing = 42 inches. One drip tape / row Pond to field = 400 ft., Slope = 0%

26 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Example layout, 5 Ac., 850’ x 256’

27 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Example layout, 50 Ac., 850’ x 256’

28 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Tape Specs. – 5 Ac. Select 5/8 in., T-tape 8” hole sp., 0.33gpm/100ft. Amount of tape : 12,446 ft/ac. (62,230 ft. / 5 ac.) Need 9 7,500 ft. / row = 67,500 ft. Flow rate / ac. = 41 gpm (205 gpm / 5 ac.) Select 4 ~ 51 gpm. Emission 10 psi inlet and 850 ft., 2% downslope = 85%. (12-15 ft elevation change = ~ 50% change in output)

29 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Pipe, Valve and Pump Size Pipe sizes: Header: 1 ¼ in. PE. Submain: 2 in. PE or PVC. Main: 2 in. PVC. Valves: 1 ½ in. Pump: psi (depending on filtration sys.) ft. of head. Pump efficiency = 60%. BHP = 2.53 Purchase 3 HP or 2.5 HP Electric (5-7 Hp Gas.)  Filters:  Screen or Disk rated for 60+ gpm flow, cleanable

30 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Estimated System Costs:  Traveling Gun & Trickle  per UT Info, Handout & The Burley Tobacco Farmer, Mar. 2002, Jeremy Stull, Fm. Mgt. Spec., & Randy Womack, Ed. Item Trav. Gun Trickle 5 Acre 20 Acres 5 Acre 20 Acres System $ (loan) $9,400 $20,150 $5,287 $8,936 Anl. Tr. Tape 1,095 4,049 Inv. Per acre $1,880 1,008 1, Anl Anl. Loan Pay. $2,480 $ 5,315 $1,395 $2,357 (5 Yr, 10%) Tr. Tape -- $1,095 $4,049 Total Anl. Cost $2,480 $ 5,315 $2,490 $6,406 Break-Even, Burley 354 lbs. 190 lbs 356 lbs 229 lbs

31 Irrigation Cash Flow Analysis By Years & Yields GAD,

32 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Summary on Trickle:  Understand the management needs…  Use means to know soil moisture…  Know how much water is being applied…  Not an ‘emergency’ system (in my opinion)  But can be used to increase yields…  Costs/Benefits needs further study…

33 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Summary on Sprinkler:  System operation well known…  Proven equipment readily available…  Used equipment can be economical purchase…  Long life with proper care…  Custom operation possible…  Resale potential…

34 Duncan & Warner, 1/03 BAE, UKY Thanks…. Lights please… Let’s hope droughts can be managed better in the future… 1983


Download ppt "Irrigation Considerations for Tobacco by George Duncan & Richard Warner Ext. Agr. Engrs. Biosystems & Agr. Engr. Dept. UK Coll. of Agri., Coop. Ext. Service."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google