7Microsprinkler/Sprays Orifice control emittersFlow rate at any given pressure is governed primarily by the orifice diameterTurbulent flow devices - flow rate is regulated by dissipating energy.Flow velocities are greater and the potential for clogging is less than for laminar flow devices.Flow rates are less sensitive to pressure (emitter exponent is about 0.5) and less sensitive to water temperature than are laminar flow devices.Vortex Control EmittersLess sensitive to pressure variations than laminar or turbulent flow emitters (emitter exponent is about 0.4).Low pressure area formed in the center where the orifice is located caused by vortex – reducing energy of water at the discharge point & a controlled flow rate.Emitter flow rate is controlled by vortex design and orifice diameter.Pressure Compensating EmittersExcess inlet pressure used to deform a diaphragm to control the flow rate.As the pressure increases, the diaphragm restricts the passage diameter.Pressure compensating emitters are designed to discharge at a fairly constant rate over a wide range of pressures (emitter exponent is normally less than 0.1).Drawbacks - the elasticity of the diaphragm may change over time.Diaphragms often retain some moisture when the pressure is off and bacteria growth ants seeking food source may result in clogging or destruction of diaphragm.
9Stake AssembliesStake assemblies raise emitter 8 inches above the ground.larger wetting patternwater dispersed over weeds and grass.4 mm ID tubing made of vinyl or polyethylene (PE).Spaghetti tubing length depends on grower preference, but typically is 2 to 4 ft long
10Wetting Patterns spinner spray Important consideration in sandy soils or where root zones are shallow.Larger wetting patterns are often preferred for tree crops.Emitters flow needs to correspond with diameter to manage them effectively.When discharge is ≤0.08 in/hr, it requires very long run times to move the water into the mid and lower root zone.Potential for more wind drift, evaporation, and wetting of non-productive areas as the diameter increases.High density plantingsMost effective to provide each tree with a smaller pattern emitter than to install larger pattern emitters on every other tree.Wetting pattern from larger diameter emitters is often distorted by interference from tree trunks and low branchesHowever, small wetting patterns associated with low flow rates can lead to more plugging problems, particularly with the orifice control emitters.spray
11Catch distribution patterns (a) spinnerSpinners have much higher application uniformities than the spray-type emitters.Both types have higher uniformity with high pressure 20 psi or higher compared 15 psi.Spinners - most of the wetted area receiving near-average application depths, with nearly continuous wetting throughout the pattern.Spray- wetted spokes radiating from the emitter with 50-75% of the area within the coverage diameter receiving little or no wetting.Lateral movement of water in the soil may help compensate for this in the root zone to varying degrees depending on the soil type(b) spray
13Emitter Selection Criteria 1. Inexpensive 2. Closeness of discharge-pressure relationship to design specifications. 3. Easy to Install 4. Susceptibility to clogging 5. Pressure compensating 6. Not affected by temperature and solar radiation 7. Reliablity of discharge-pressure relationship over a long period of time
14Manufacturing variation The variations in emitter passage size, shape, and surface finish that do occur are small in absolute magnitude but represent a relatively large percent variation.
15Emitter manufacturing variability Coefficient of manufacturing variation (CV) is a statistical description of how uniformly the flow rate of each manufactured emitter is in relation to one another
18Flow rateFlow is characterized by the following equation
19Emitter Exponentis important and critical to the design, management and uniformity of the Micro systemThe exponent (x) measures the flatness of the discharge-pressure curve.
20Flow rate/pressure relationship for a laminar flow emitter (X=1.00)
21Flow rate/pressure relationship for a turbulent flow emitter (X=0.50)
22Flow rate/pressure relationship for a pressure compensated flow emitter (X=0.0)
23PC emittersEven the best PC emitters only have a certain range of pressures over which they provide good pressure compensation.A PC emitter may retain its compensating abilities at very high pressures. But when pressures exceed 35 psi or so, emitters tend to pop off the hose, or hoses tend to pop out of their fittings
24System EU for a PC emitters The EU for a PC emitter is still dependent on the manufacturing variation CVThey do not have a discharge exponent of exactly 0.0, even though that is what is claimed
25How to get x and KK and x may be obtained from manufacture or calculatedFor sprinkler x is nearly always 0.5For pressure compensating x ~ 0.0
26ExampleGiven: q1 = 1.5 gph, q2 = 2.0 gph, P1 = 12 psi, P2 = 20 psi Find: x and K
30Determine average emitter pressure head (Pa) Where:qa= average emitter flow rate (gph)Pa = average pressure (psi)x = emitter exponentK = flow constant
31Average depth applied Where: Fn = Average applied (in) e = number of emittersqa=average emitter flow rate (gph)Ta = set time (hrs)Sp = Plant spacing (ft)Sr = Row spacing (ft)
32Determine total system flow rate Where: A = field area, ac. e = number of emitters per plant. N = number of operating stations. qa = average or design emission rate, gph. Sp = plant spacing in the row, ft. Sr = distance between plant rows, ft