Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Slide 9.1 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Developments in change management The Emergent approach and beyond.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Slide 9.1 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Developments in change management The Emergent approach and beyond."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 9.1 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Developments in change management The Emergent approach and beyond

2 Slide 9.2 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Lecture 4 Learning Outcomes Explore the developments in change management. Explore the developments in change management. The principles for understanding change The principles for understanding change Managing and executing change Managing and executing change Emergent change Emergent change Why change initiatives fail Why change initiatives fail Determinants of successful change Determinants of successful change The Communications process and the importance of its role in change The Communications process and the importance of its role in change

3 Slide 9.3 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Emergent change Open-ended process Open-ended process Adjusting to changing external environment Adjusting to changing external environment Bottom-up Bottom-up Unpredictable Unpredictable Cannot be pre-planned Cannot be pre-planned Learning process Learning process No universal rules. No universal rules.

4 Slide 9.4 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Emergent change (Continued) The recurring story is one of autonomous initiatives that bubble up internally; continuous emergent change; steady learning from both failure and success; strategy implementation that is replaced by strategy making; the appearance of innovations that are unplanned, unforeseen and unexpected; and small actions that have surprisingly large consequences. (Weick, 2000: 225)

5 Slide 9.5 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 In this perspective, organizational transformation is not portrayed as a drama staged by deliberate directors with predefined scripts and choreographed moves, or the inevitable outcome of a technological logic, or a sudden discontinuity that fundamentally invalidates the status quo. Rather, organizational transformation is seen here to be an ongoing improvisation enacted by organizational actors trying to make sense of and act coherently in the world. … Each shift in practice creates the conditions for further breakdowns, unanticipated outcomes, and innovations, which in their turn are responded to with more variations. And such variations are ongoing; there is no beginning or end point in this change process. ( Orlikowski, 1996: 65–66) Emergent change (Continued)

6 Slide 9.6 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Advantages of Emergent change … sensitivity to local contingencies; suitability for on-line real-time experimentation, learning, and sensemaking; comprehensibility and manageability; likelihood of satisfying needs for autonomy, control, and expression; proneness to swift implementation; resistance to unravelling; ability to exploit existing tacit knowledge; and tightened and shortened feedback loops from results to action. (Weick, 2000: 227)

7 Slide 9.7 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Emergent change Successful change is less dependent on detailed plans and projections than on reaching an understanding of the complexity of the issues concerned and identifying the range of available options. Pettigrew (1997)

8 Slide 9.8 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Power and politics In managing these transitions practitioners need to be aware of: the importance of power politics within organizations as a determinant of the speed, direction and character of change; the enabling and constraining properties of the type and scale of change being introduced; and the influence of the internal and external context on the pathways and outcomes of change on new work arrangement. (Dawson, 1994: 180–182)

9 Slide 9.9 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Pugh’s four principles for understanding change Principle One: Organizations are organisms. Principle One: Organizations are organisms. Principle Two: Organizations are political and occupational systems as well as rational resource allocation ones. Principle Two: Organizations are political and occupational systems as well as rational resource allocation ones. Principle Three: All members of an organization operate simultaneously in all three systems – the rational, the occupational and the political ones.. Principle Three: All members of an organization operate simultaneously in all three systems – the rational, the occupational and the political ones.. Principle Four: Change is most likely to be acceptable and effective in those people or departments who are successful in their tasks but who are experiencing tensions or failure in some particular part of their work. (Pugh, 1993: 109–110) Principle Four: Change is most likely to be acceptable and effective in those people or departments who are successful in their tasks but who are experiencing tensions or failure in some particular part of their work. (Pugh, 1993: 109–110)

10 Slide 9.10 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Pugh’s four principles for understanding change Principle One: Organizations are organisms. They are not mechanisms which can be taken apart and reassembled differently as required. They can be changed, but the change must be approached carefully with the implications for the various groupings thought out and the participants convinced of the worthwhileness of their point of view. Principle One: Organizations are organisms. They are not mechanisms which can be taken apart and reassembled differently as required. They can be changed, but the change must be approached carefully with the implications for the various groupings thought out and the participants convinced of the worthwhileness of their point of view. Principle Two: Organizations are political and occupational systems as well as rational resource allocation ones. Every reaction to a change proposal must be interpreted not only in terms of rational arguments of what is best for the firm … The reaction must also be understood in relation to the occupational system … and the political system (how will it affect the power, status, prestige of the group?). Principle Two: Organizations are political and occupational systems as well as rational resource allocation ones. Every reaction to a change proposal must be interpreted not only in terms of rational arguments of what is best for the firm … The reaction must also be understood in relation to the occupational system … and the political system (how will it affect the power, status, prestige of the group?). Principle Three: All members of an organization operate simultaneously in all three systems – the rational, the occupational and the political ones. Do not make the mistake of becoming cynical and thinking that the occupational and the political aspects are all that matter, and that rational arguments are merely rationalizations to defend a particular position. Principle Three: All members of an organization operate simultaneously in all three systems – the rational, the occupational and the political ones. Do not make the mistake of becoming cynical and thinking that the occupational and the political aspects are all that matter, and that rational arguments are merely rationalizations to defend a particular position. Principle Four: Change is most likely to be acceptable and effective in those people or departments who are successful in their tasks but who are experiencing tensions or failure in some particular part of their work. … They will have the two basic ingredients [for successful change] of confidence in their ability and motivation to change. Principle Four: Change is most likely to be acceptable and effective in those people or departments who are successful in their tasks but who are experiencing tensions or failure in some particular part of their work. … They will have the two basic ingredients [for successful change] of confidence in their ability and motivation to change. (Pugh, 1993: 109–110)

11 Slide 9.11 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 The role of managers Decision-making: this includes intuition and vision, the ability to gather and utilise information, understanding the practical and political consequences of decisions, the ability to overcome resistance, the skill to understand and synthesise conflicting views and to be able to empathise with different groups. Decision-making: this includes intuition and vision, the ability to gather and utilise information, understanding the practical and political consequences of decisions, the ability to overcome resistance, the skill to understand and synthesise conflicting views and to be able to empathise with different groups. Coalition-building: this comprises the skills necessary to gain the support and resources necessary to implement decisions. These include checking the feasibility of ideas, gaining supporters, bargaining with other stakeholders and presenting new ideas and concepts in a way that wins support. Coalition-building: this comprises the skills necessary to gain the support and resources necessary to implement decisions. These include checking the feasibility of ideas, gaining supporters, bargaining with other stakeholders and presenting new ideas and concepts in a way that wins support. Achieving action: this includes handling opposition, motivating people, providing support and building self-esteem. Achieving action: this includes handling opposition, motivating people, providing support and building self-esteem. Maintaining momentum and effort: this involves team-building, generating ownership, sharing information and problems, providing feedback, trusting people and energising staff. Maintaining momentum and effort: this involves team-building, generating ownership, sharing information and problems, providing feedback, trusting people and energising staff. (Carnall, 2003: 125–126)

12 Slide 9.12 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Contingency … context and action are inseparable. (Pettigrew, 2000: 243) Leadership [of change] requires action appropriate to its context. ( Pettigrew and Whipp, 1991: 165) ( Pettigrew and Whipp, 1991: 165) A system has an identity that sets it apart from its environment and is capable of preserving that identity within a given range of environmental scenarios. Systems exist within a hierarchy of other systems. They contain subsystems and exist within some wider system. All are interconnected... (Stickland, 1998: 14)... while the primary stimulus for change remains those forces in the external environment, the primary motivator for how change is accomplished resides with the people within the organization. (Benjamin and Mabey, 1993: 181)

13 Slide 9.13 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Figure 9.2 The determinants of successful change

14 Slide 9.14 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Managing the political dynamics of change Step 1: Ensure or develop the support of key power groups. Step 1: Ensure or develop the support of key power groups. Step 2: Use leader behaviour to generate support for the proposed change. Step 2: Use leader behaviour to generate support for the proposed change. Step 3: Use symbols and language to encourage and show support for the change. Step 3: Use symbols and language to encourage and show support for the change. Step 4: Build in stability by using power to ensure that some things remain the same. Step 4: Build in stability by using power to ensure that some things remain the same. Senior (2002)

15 Slide 9.15 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Five central factors for managing change 1. Environmental assessment – organisations, at all levels, need to develop the ability to collect and utilise information about their external and internal environments. 2. Leading change – this requires the creation of a positive climate for change, the identification of future directions and the linking together of action by people at all levels in the organisation. 3. Linking strategic and operational change – this is a two-way process of ensuring that intentional strategic decisions lead to operational changes and that emergent operational changes influence strategic decisions. 4. Human resources as assets and liabilities – just as the pool of knowledge, skills and attitudes possessed by an organisation is crucial to its success, it can also be a threat to the organisation’s success if the combination is inappropriate or managed poorly. 5. Coherence of purpose – this concerns the need to ensure that the decisions and actions that flow from the above four factors complement and reinforce each other. Pettigrew and Whipp (1993)

16 Slide 9.16 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Ten Commandments for executing change 1.Analyse the organisation and its need for change. 1.Analyse the organisation and its need for change. 2.Create a shared vision and a common direction. 2.Create a shared vision and a common direction. 3.Separate from the past. 3.Separate from the past. 4.Create a sense of urgency. 4.Create a sense of urgency. 5.Support a strong leader role. 5.Support a strong leader role. 6.Line up political sponsorship. 6.Line up political sponsorship. 7.Craft an implementation plan. 7.Craft an implementation plan. 8.Develop enabling structures. 8.Develop enabling structures. 9.Communicate, involve people and be honest. 9.Communicate, involve people and be honest. 10.Reinforce and institutionalise change. (Kanter et al, 1992: 382–383)

17 Slide 9.17 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Why change initiatives fail Error 1 Allowing too much complacency. Error 2 Failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition. Error 3 Underestimating the power of vision. Error 4 Undercommunicating the vision by a factor of 10 (or 100 or even 1000). Error 5 Permitting obstacles to block the new vision. Error 6 Failing to create short-term wins. Error 7 Declaring victory too soon. Error 8 Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture. Kotter (1996)

18 Slide 9.18 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Kotter’s eight steps to successful change Step 1 Establishing a sense of urgency. Step 2 Creating a guiding coalition. Step 3 Developing a vision and strategy. Step 4 Communicating the change vision. Step 5 Empowering broad-based action. Step 6 Generating short-term wins. Step 7 Consolidating gains and producing more change. Step 8 Anchoring new approaches in the culture. Kotter (1996)

19 Slide 9.19 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Caldwell’s models of change agent Leadership models where change agents are senior managers responsible for identifying and delivering strategic/transformational change. Leadership models where change agents are senior managers responsible for identifying and delivering strategic/transformational change. Management models where change agents are seen as middle-level managers/functional specialists who have responsibility for delivering or supporting specific elements of strategic change programmes or projects. Management models where change agents are seen as middle-level managers/functional specialists who have responsibility for delivering or supporting specific elements of strategic change programmes or projects. Consultancy models where change agents are external or internal consultants who can be called on to operate at any level. Consultancy models where change agents are external or internal consultants who can be called on to operate at any level. Team models where change agents are seen as teams that operate at various levels in an organisation and which are composed of the requisite managers, employees and consultants necessary to accomplish the particular change project set them. Team models where change agents are seen as teams that operate at various levels in an organisation and which are composed of the requisite managers, employees and consultants necessary to accomplish the particular change project set them. Caldwell (2003)

20 Slide 9.20 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 The Emergent approach Summary Change is a continuous process Change is a continuous process It involves experimentation, adaptation and risk taking It involves experimentation, adaptation and risk taking Incremental change leads to wholesale change Incremental change leads to wholesale change Managers must foster a climate of learning and experimentation Managers must foster a climate of learning and experimentation Managers must create a collective vision for the organisation Managers must create a collective vision for the organisation The key organisational processes are: The key organisational processes are: Information-gathering Information-gathering Communication Communication Learning. Learning.

21 Slide 9.21 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 The Emergent approach Criticisms ‘One best way’ ‘One best way’ Assumes all organisations are the same Assumes all organisations are the same Overfocused on power and politics Overfocused on power and politics Culture is treated as malleable Culture is treated as malleable Ignores managerial resistance Ignores managerial resistance Ignores choice. Ignores choice.

22 Slide 9.22 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Approaches to change Though both Planned and Emergent change have important theoretical and practical benefits, their dominance of the change literature appears to have led to a neglect of other approaches to change.

23 Slide 9.23 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication (Chapter 9) The communication process The communication process Selecting communication channels Selecting communication channels Communication networks Communication networks Developments in communication technology Developments in communication technology Interpersonal communication skills Interpersonal communication skills The context of communicating The context of communicating

24 Slide 9.24 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Overview of the themes Figure 16.1 An overview of communication in organisations

25 Slide 9.25 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Why study communication? Adding value depends on communication throughout and beyond the organisation Adding value depends on communication throughout and beyond the organisation Design of communication systems (including those using modern IT) reflects assumptions about the process and its elements Design of communication systems (including those using modern IT) reflects assumptions about the process and its elements Effectiveness depends on questioning current practice, being aware of limitations and able to offer informed alternatives Effectiveness depends on questioning current practice, being aware of limitations and able to offer informed alternatives

26 Slide 9.26 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Managing and communicating Adding value to resources depends on communicating information Adding value to resources depends on communicating information Inputs (e.g. available resources) Inputs (e.g. available resources) Transformation (e.g. quality problems) Transformation (e.g. quality problems) Outputs (e.g. customer satisfaction) Outputs (e.g. customer satisfaction) Formal and informal systems Formal and informal systems Computer-based systems Computer-based systems How to ensure they support, rather than disrupt, human communication How to ensure they support, rather than disrupt, human communication

27 Slide 9.27 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication in organisations Figure 16.2 The role of communication in organisations Source: Adapted from Boddy et al. (2005)

28 Slide 9.28 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 The communication process Figure 16.3 The communication process

29 Slide 9.29 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Information richness Figure 16.4 The Lengel–Daft media richness hierarchy Source: Lengel and Daft (1988)

30 Slide 9.30 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication and type of task Figure 16.6 Communication structure and type of task Source: Based on Baron and Greenberg (1997)

31 Slide 9.31 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Developments in communication technology Convergence of telephone, television and computers Convergence of telephone, television and computers Each communication device developed separately: now converging – latest mobiles Each communication device developed separately: now converging – latest mobiles Internet, Intranets and Extranets Internet, Intranets and Extranets Greater accuracy and mutual understanding Greater accuracy and mutual understanding Technology helps, but mutual understanding depends on applying interpersonal communication skills Technology helps, but mutual understanding depends on applying interpersonal communication skills

32 Slide 9.32 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Context of communication Culture Culture Differences affect communication, esp. in transnational teams Differences affect communication, esp. in transnational teams Structure Structure Division of work (Chapter 10) may lead to inward focus and communication barriers Division of work (Chapter 10) may lead to inward focus and communication barriers Power Power Information a source of power, affects willingness to communicate Information a source of power, affects willingness to communicate

33 Slide 9.33 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Supplementary Material

34 Slide 9.34 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Steps in communicating Coding idea into a message Coding idea into a message Select symbols – words, actions, expressions Select symbols – words, actions, expressions Selecting medium (or channel) Selecting medium (or channel) , face-to-face meeting, letter etc. (e.g. Ghosn) , face-to-face meeting, letter etc. (e.g. Ghosn) Choice depends on purpose and context Decoding symbols to see message Decoding symbols to see message Giving feedback to sender Giving feedback to sender Communication only complete when sender knows message received = message intended

35 Slide 9.35 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Relevant concepts Noise Noise Filters or distractions that disrupt process Filters or distractions that disrupt process Non-verbal communication (body language) Non-verbal communication (body language) Tone, expression, eyes, appearance, posture Tone, expression, eyes, appearance, posture As important as verbal symbols (e.g. Cisco Systems) As important as verbal symbols (e.g. Cisco Systems) Perception Perception People make sense of context by selecting and interpreting information: affects the meaning they take from a message People make sense of context by selecting and interpreting information: affects the meaning they take from a message Selective attention and stereotyping Selective attention and stereotyping

36 Slide 9.36 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Selecting communication channels How to send the message? Face to face Spoken words, electronically transmitted? (telephone, mobile, voic , videoconferencing – e.g. W.R. Grace) Personally addressed, written? Letter, , text message Interpersonal written? Blogs and blogging? Choice depends on information richness of channel

37 Slide 9.37 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication networks Horizontal – across the organisation Horizontal – across the organisation Downward Downward Countless routine systems and processes Countless routine systems and processes Team briefings Team briefings Upward Upward Opinion surveys Opinion surveys Suggestion schemes Suggestion schemes Appeal or grievance procedures Appeal or grievance procedures Informal processes – the grapevine, blogs Informal processes – the grapevine, blogs Groups and teams – Fig Groups and teams – Fig. 16.5

38 Slide 9.38 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication in groups Figure 16.5 Centralised and decentralised communication networks in groups Source: Shaw (1978)

39 Slide 9.39 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Communication strategies Figure 16.8 The framework for strategic communication Source: Based on Argenti et al. (2005)

40 Slide 9.40 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Adding value depends on communication throughout and beyond the organisation Adding value depends on communication throughout and beyond the organisation Design reflects assumptions about the process Design reflects assumptions about the process What symbols to use What symbols to use What channels to use What channels to use How much to depend on new technologies? How much to depend on new technologies? The context of communications (culture etc.) The context of communications (culture etc.) Models enable systematic questions about accuracy of assumptions in the context, and which alternatives may work better – e.g. more technology or more face-to-face? Models enable systematic questions about accuracy of assumptions in the context, and which alternatives may work better – e.g. more technology or more face-to-face?

41 Slide 9.41 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Case Study


Download ppt "Slide 9.1 Bernard Burnes, Managing Change, 5 th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Developments in change management The Emergent approach and beyond."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google