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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1983 1996 2005 20.1% 14.5% 12.5% Overall Percent of Union Membership -- United States Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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Presentation on theme: "35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1983 1996 2005 20.1% 14.5% 12.5% Overall Percent of Union Membership -- United States Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1983 1996 2005 20.1% 14.5% 12.5% Overall Percent of Union Membership -- United States Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

2 Union Membership By Certain Industries Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics:


4 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics:

5 Union Membership of 14 European Countries Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics:

6 American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Amalgamated Transit Union American Postal Workers Union Association of Flight Attendants Communication Workers of America International Association of Machinists International Brotherhood of Boilermakers National Education Association Screen Actors Guild United Auto Workers United Farm Workers United Mine Workers United Steel Workers Selected List of Labor Unions

7 Reasons for Union Formation Economic factors (e.g., pay, promotion opportunity) Supervision (behavior, attitude, interpersonal style, unfair treatment) Safety concerns

8 Campaign (sign cards to endorse an election or not [overseen by representative of NLRB] Greater 30% required for election Election Labor Contract --- A formal, written agreement between union and the company regarding the conditions of employment (e.g., pay, benefits, grievance process, performance assessment) over a given period of time Overview of How Unions Form Majority of members of in bargaining vote “yes” required for union to be formed Union

9 Collective Bargaining Mediation --- Assist, facilitate an agreement between parties [share information]. No formal power to impose a decision Federal Mediation & Conciliation Service Fact-Finding --- More formal process. 1)Review relevant facts on the issues 2)Make formal recommendation 3)Make recommendation public Not used very often, most successful in private sector

10 Collective Bargaining (cont.) Arbitration --- Final and binding decision [American Arbitration Association]American Arbitration Association] Arbitration types: Type used if determined by law in the public sector, by agreement in private sector. Voluntary – Agreed upon by both parties (most common in private sector) Compulsory – Mandated by law (common in public sector) Conventional --- Arbitrator decides on best solution; often a compromise between opposing positions Final Offer -- Choose one position or the other Total package vs. Issue by issue

11 Arbitration Grievance Committee Industrial Relations Manager Management Union Division ManagerChief Steward Industrial Relations Manager Shop Steward Industrial Relations Manager Grievant Form Mgmt. Answer Sample Grievance Procedure Union Appeal Step 1 2 3 4 5 Written Oral Written Immediate 5 Days 10 Days 20 Days Issue in Dispute

12 Factors Impacting Grievances Employee characteristics More education Greater activity in union More absenteeism Lower wages Shop steward characteristics (e.g., Personality; more dominant = more likely to file a grievance) Type of work/job performed Not related to number of grievances filed but to type of grievance filed More likely to file grievances

13 Impasse (failure of collective bargaining process) Union options used -- Work slow down Absenteeism (“blue flu”) Sabotage Strike (legitimate or “wildcat” strike) Management options used -- Lockout

14 Union Impact Selection (e.g., applicant pool, process) Training (e.g., apprentice programs) Performance Evaluation (e.g., factors to be evaluated, frequency) Job Performance (e.g., scheduling of work, speed of production, type of work allowed)

15 Some Influential Labor Leaders Mary Harris (Mother Jones) 1830-1930 United Mine Workers of America Samuel Gompers 1850-1924 American Federation of Labor Eugene Debs 1855-1926 American Railway Union Pauline Newman 1890-1986 International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union Frances Perkins 1882-1965 Secretary of Labor Walter Reuther 1907-1970 United Auto Wokers Cesar Chavez 1927-1993 American Farm Workers Union Albert Shanker 1928- 1997 American Federation of Teachers

16 Some Key Events in U.S. Labor History DateEvent April 27, 1825First strike for the 10-hour work-day by carpenters in Boston July 3, 1835Children at a silk mills company (Paterson, NJ) go on strike for 11 hr. days/6 days week January 13,1874Tompkins Square Riot (Demonstration of unemployed workers. Police beat demonstrators causing over 100 casualties) June 21, 187710 coal miners (The "Molly Maguires") hanged July 14, 1877National railroad strike. Federal troops called in to end strike. In Chicago ("Battle of the Viaduct“) 30 workers killed over 100 injured September 5, 18821 st celebration of Labor Day (New York City) September 10, 1897 Lattimer Massacre. Striking coal miners marched in protest of oor mine conditions. 19 miners killed, 50 or more wounded May 1886Haymarket Protests/Riots [see] Day after police killed 2 protestors, a bomb thrown in Haymarket Square killed 7 police. Eight people found guilty of murder; 4 executed on 11/11/1887. Impetus for May Day (May 1 st ) as the International Workers’ holiday April 20, 1914"Ludlow Massacre" State Militia, in response to a strike at the Ludlow Mine Field, attack a union camp with machine guns and set tents on fire. 5 men, 2 women, and 12 children killed May 19, 1920Battle of Matewan August 3, 1981Federal air traffic controllers began nationwide strike. Majority of 13,000 controllers who ignored back-to-work order fired by Ronald Reagan October 6, 1986Female flight attendants (1,700) won an 18-year lawsuit (including $37 million in damages) against United Airlines, which fired them for getting married

17 LawMain Feature Railway Labor Act (RLA), 1926 Required companies to bargain collectively, prohibited discrimination against unions Davis-Bacon Act, 1931Construction contracts with the Federal Gov’t need to specify the minimum wage to be paid Norris-LaGuardia Act, 1932Guaranteed labor unions the right to organize, strike, and use other economic leverage in negotiations with management National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), 1935 (Wagner Act) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) established Guaranteed the right to organize, join labor unions, choose representatives, collective bargain, and strike Independent Federal agency to enforce violations by organizations: a) interfering with formation of labor unions, b) hampering employees in organizing/collective bargaining, c) imposition of employment conditions to discourage union membership, d) discriminating against employees filing charges under the NLRA, and e) refusing to submit to collective bargaining Anti-Strikebreaker Law (Byrnes Act), 1936 Illegal to employ those to use force/threats against non-violent labor disputes, organizing, or bargaining Walsh-Healy Act, 1936Guaranteed pay of not less than the "prevailing minimum wage" paid in a locality; restricted regular working hours to 8 hrs./day & 40 hrs./wk., time- and-a-half pay for additional hours; prohibited employment of convicts and children under 18, established sanitation and safety standards Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 1938 Established minimum wages and maximum hours for workers. Established minimum ages of employment and hours of work for children Taft-Hartley Act, 1947Set process to delay/avert "national emergency" strikes; prohibited supervisory employees from coverage of Wagner Act; prohibited "closed shops" List of Major Labor Laws

18 Bibb Mill, Macon, GA. Hughestown Borough Coal Co. Pittston, PA 11 year old girl. Rhodes Manufacturing Co. N.C. Child Labor 1836 -- National Trades’ Union Convention make the first formal proposal for states to establish minimum ages for factory work 1836-- 1st state child labor law. Massachusetts mandates children less than 15 working in factories to attend school at least 3 months a year 1876 -- Working Men’s Party proposes abolishing the employment of children under the age of 14 1881 -- American Federation of Labor passes a resolution for states to ban children under 14 from employment 1904 -- National Child Labor Committee forms to campaign for federal child labor law reform 1936 -- Walsh-Healey Act passed. U.S. government will not purchase goods made by underage children 1938 -- Fair Labor Standards Act. Minimum ages of employment and hours of work for children regulated by federal law Photos by Lewis Hine. See html

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