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Operatives Craftsmen Technicians EngineersDegrees Diplomas Basic Education Vocational Training
Professor Chi Chee Ming Lam Woon Kwong
Society has changed! And is still changing, very fast. But how?
I How long do credentials last? 一勞永逸？終生受用？
Department Heads in Department Stores Secondary school graduates 1970s: stable and comfortable 1980s: re-engineering, second tier shops 1990s: shops in malls Late 1990s: domestic helpers
It used to be … Cycle of societal changes Career Life
It used to be … Cycle of societal changes Career Life
Now … Career Life
Observation of Change I Credentials do not last long! Learning has to go beyond credentials! Hence, Learning to Learn?
II Study for the Job? 學以致用？
University Graduates Medicine: 1% Law: 15-20% Engineering: 35% Arts & Social Sciencesvaried
Year 1234 Aspiring to be an engineer (%) Imperial College
Accountants Mismatch Physics, Psychology PhD, Computer Science PhD Morgan Stanley “Winning Personality” Senior Partner Deloitte “Integrity and sensitivity” KPMG More non-accounting graduates Society of Accountants “Don’t teach!”
John BScEng (1971) Graduated in Electrical Engineering Appointed to the Department of Electrical Engineering Promoted to a very senior position Stayed in the Department until 55 Enjoying early retirement
Change of jobs ： UK (City and Guild, 2006) : 13 jobs/life US (DOL) 10.6 jobs/life (2006) 4.3 occupations/life (2002)
Jobs? Jobs are declining in number! Traditional jobs are disappearing! Free-lancing & self-employment are on the rise! Jobs are changing in nature!
Observation of Change II Study-occupation mismatch and job-changes are commonplace! Ability counts more than stock of information! Hence, Reforms in Curriculum? Reforms in Pedagogy! Reforms in Assessments!
III Education for Knowledge and Skills? 學好數理化，走遍天下都不怕？ 一技傍身？
Source of Knowledge and Skills – MIT Alumni Source: Kristen Wolfe, B.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, June 2004
Knowledge and Skills – MIT Alumni Mean Frequency of Use Source: Kristen Wolfe, B.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, June 2004
Same credentials, differential salaries (Top salary/Bottom salary) Investment banking 13+ Retail banking 5.5 Computer related 4.5 Marketing 4 Social Work 2 (Kan 2009, Data from two universities in Hong Kong)
Promote or perish One-stop Team Blurred layers Integrated teamwork Frontline design, personal responsibility Appointment by personality Loose rules & flexible procedures Output rather than process
Team Work Human Interactions Integrated Expertise Self- Management Personal Responsibility Innovations & Design Risk Taking Moral Judgments Ethical Dilemmas Commitment Passion Mindfulness Communications Presentations Brainstorming Negotiation Persuasion Debates Networking Lifelong Learning Self- Consciousness Indecent Temptations Emotional Challenges
Work units are getting smaller and looser Front-line responsibilities are getting more complex More people do not work in organizations More people are between jobs More people retire early
The workplace: Products/services: Customized or Personalized Production: “Less of More”, Variety over Quantity Organizations: smaller, flatter and looser Working modes: intensive human interactions
Observation of Change III What is expected is well beyond what the curriculum provides. Hence, Broader learning experiences! Key Learning Areas, and plus Learning beyond classrooms, campuses, … Learning beyond family and culture, …
Society had changed! In sum,..
Industrial Large pyramids Producer-centred Departments Hierarchy Tight structure Design at the top Assigned procedures Rules & regulations Post-industrial Small companies Client-centred Project teams Flat Loose & fluid Design at front-lines Improvised actions Fit-for-purpose acts
Industrial Division of labour Individual tasks Specialist duties Administrative links Credential-based appointments Appraisal by seniors Post-industrial Total solutions Team work Integrated expertise Human interactions On-demand, just-in-time learning appraisal
Industrial Bottom of the hierarchy Hiring due to credentials Member of a specialised department Implementation of design Using specific skills Routine and repetitive activities Working according to job descriptions Following set procedures Maintaining the convention Abiding by rules and regulations Appraised by degree of compliance Stable and secure Blue collars Post-industrial Member of a small group Hiring due to personality Working in teams Directly facing clients Handling human relations Directly facing problems Anticipating total solutions Designing solutions with creativity Using multiple skills Taking risks Improvising fit-for-purpose activities Managing oneself Learning on-the-job, on-demand, just-in-time Appraised Unstable, uncertain and insecure Knowledge workers
Moral Standards Attitudes Emotions Values Ethics Personality ….. All in the affective domain!
There are lives beyond jobs or economic lives. Family lives? Cultural lives? Political lives? Spiritual lives? Leisure lives? Lives after retirement? ….
Preparation for Disruptions in Life Unpredictable natural disasters Man-made accidents Emerging disease and recurring epidemics Precarious economic crises Surprise attacks of terrorism Unexpected political turmoil Irresponsible politicking Hidden potentials of wars Intolerable social inequality and conflicts
Decreasing number of pure manual workers Where can school failures/dropouts go? Rapid change of environments Does education prepare for adaptability, creativity? Expectations in attitudes, values, ethics Are students prepared? Demand for learning all the time Do students learn how to learn?
All in all, We cannot content with doing more and better of what we have been doing! We have to do Education differently! Hence, Education Reform!
Therefore How would learning be different? Or rather, how would formal education be different?
We are blessed by the wealth of research findings in Sciences of Learning
1. Deep learning is achieved only through the learner’s meaning-making efforts during which the learner constructs his/her own understanding. Learning as Meaning-making
2. Learning is a process of active construction of knowledge based on individuals’ experience and prior knowledge, and not one of knowledge transmission. Learning as Knowledge Construction
3. Creation of new knowledge requires individual’s meta-cognitive capacities which can only be nurtured through real- life problem solving and innovations. Learning through Experience!
4. Human knowledge is socially constructed. It is continuously improvable through collective intentional efforts in the relevant communities. Learning as Social Cognition
5. Collaborative and inquiry-based approaches to organizing learning have become the most prominent focus in learning sciences and pedagogical enhancement. Collaborative Learning
In any case, Learning should be the Core Business of Education!
填充 Filling the blanks 造句 Creating a sentence 改錯 Correcting mistakes 重組 Reordering 默書 Dictation What are they doing? What kind of learning do we expect?
單字 單句 短文 長文 為誰而寫？為什麼而寫？
背書 抄書 默書
Write as many as possible Minimum 6 3 marks for each correct No deduction for mistakes Spring
Mental Lexicon Encourage Exploration Creation of Vocabulary Ability Differentiation
Chinese Language Learning PIRLS 2001: 14 th PIRLS 2006: 2 nd PIRLS 2011: 1 st Explanation “Creative Learning” introduced
Chinese Language Learning Before end of Grade 2: 2,500 characters Learning Chinese characters Learning writing Grade 4-5: Reading classical novels
Other examples of learning and pedagogy Pedagogical Content Knowledge Drama Education Problem-based Learning CDIO in Engineering
Dimension 5 Learning & Training Examples: Motor Learning
Motor Learning: Explicit versus implicit learning Speech Science Sports Science Medical Rehabilitation Dance
Scale Practice Translation Dissemination Basic Research
Cross-disciplinary Strategic Research Theme (HKU) Neuroscience: language learning, mindfulness Psychology: experiments, interventions, reading, … Pedagogy: PCK, Curriculum, … T&L units: PBL, CDIO, … Motor Learning Non-cognitive learning: forgiveness, emotions, … Spirituality learning: meditation, enlightenment,.. Arts learning: music, dance, drama, … Learning and social context: Policy, dissemination
Learning leadership vs school management Learning resources vs education funding Community of learning professionals vs teaching force Assessment for learning vs assessment of learning, for classification and sifting Technology for liberation of learners vs replacement of teachers