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Unit8 Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information 1. Quote O Hare Noel (American Writer): As a modern parent, I know that it’s not.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit8 Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information 1. Quote O Hare Noel (American Writer): As a modern parent, I know that it’s not."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit8

3 Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information 1. Quote O Hare Noel (American Writer): As a modern parent, I know that it’s not how much you give children those counts, it’s the love and attention you shower on them. A caring attitude can not only save you a small fortune, but also even make you feel good about being tight- fisted and offering more care than present.

4 Cultural information 2.1 Cultural information 2. Father The father is often seen as an authority figure. A common observation among scholars is that the authority of the father and of the political leader are closely intertwined, that there is a symbolic identification between domestic authority and national political leadership. The fundamental common grounds between domestic and national authority, are the mechanisms of naming (exercise the authority in someone’s name) and identification. In a patriarchal society, authority typically uses such rhetoric of fatherhood and family to implement their rule and advocate its legitimacy.

5 Cultural information 2.2 Cultural information In Western culture patriarchy and authority have been synonymous. In the 19th century Europe, the idea was common, among both traditionalist and revolutionaries, that the authority of the domestic father should “be made omnipotent in the family so that it becomes less necessary in the state”. In the second part of that century, there was an extension of the authority of the husband over his wife and the authority of the father over his children, including “increased demands for absolute obedience of children to the father”.

6 Main idea Global Reading-Text analysis1 Main idea Structural analysis The text recollects a series of events concerning the narrator’s father, who showed profound affection for his daughter by offering her valentines on Valentine’s Day. 1. What is the story narrated in the text about?

7 Global Reading-Text analysis2 Structural analysis Main idea Because the first and last gifts her father offered her are the most impressive and the most unforgettable ones. 2. Why does the writer focus her accounts and descriptions on her first recollection of the magic her father brought to the occasion and on the last card and gift from him?

8 Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 Main idea Structural analysis 1. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Paragraphs Main idea 1-2 It gives a brief account of the narrator’s father and points out the theme of the text It provides a detailed account of how the father showed profound affection for his daughter on Valentine’s Day.

9 Structural analysis 2 Structural analysis Main idea Paragraphs Main idea The narrator tells us how important it has been to her to have such a loving father and that she will never forget her father and his kindness to her.

10 Structural analysis 2 Structural analysis Main idea 2. The author’s recounting of her Valentine’s Day memories in the second part of the text follows closely the chronological order. Try to pick out the three sentences in this part that indicate the progression of time. The three sentences that indicate the progression of time are: 1)My first recollection of the magic he could bring to Valentine’s Day came when I was six. (Paragraph 3)

11 Structural analysis 2 Structural analysis Main idea 2) As I grew older, the gifts gave way to heart-shaped boxes filled with my favorite chocolates and always included a special card signed “Love, Dad.” (Paragraph 5) 3) My mailbox eventually had a rural address, and the job of hand-delivering candy and cards was relegated to the U.S. Postal Service. (Paragraph 7)

12 The traditional holidays in our house when I was a child were spent timing elaborate meals around football games. My father tried to make pleasant chitchat and eat as much as he could during half time. At Christmas he found time to have a cup or two of holiday beer and do his holly-shaped bow tie. But he didn’t truly shine until Valentine’s Day. My Forever Valentine Detailed reading1 Detailed reading 1

13 Detailed reading2 Detailed reading I don’t know whether it was because work at the office slowed during February or because the football season was over. But Valentine’s Day was the time my father chose to show his love for the special people in his life. Over the years I fondly thought of him as my “Valentine Man”. 2

14 Detailed reading3 Detailed reading My first recollection of the magic he could bring to Valentine’s Day came when I was six. For several days I had been cutting out valentines for my classmates. Each of us was to decorate a “mailbox” and put it on our desk for others to give us cards. That box and its contents ushered in a succession of bittersweet memories of my entrance into a world of popularity contests marked by the number of cards received, the teasing about boyfriends/girlfriends and the tender care I gave to the card from the cutest boy in class. 3

15 Detailed reading4 Detailed reading That morning at the breakfast table I found a card and a gift-wrapped package at my chair. The card was signed “Love, Dad,” and the gift was a ring with a small piece of red glass to represent my birthstone, a ruby. There is little difference between red glass and rubies to a child of six, and I remember wearing that ring with a pride that all the cards in the world could not surpass. 4

16 Detailed reading5 Detailed reading As I grew older, the gifts gave way to heart-shaped boxes filled with my favorite chocolates and always included a special card signed “Love, Dad.” In those years my thank-yous became more of a perfunctory response. The cards seemed less important, and I took for granted the valentine that would always be there. Long past the days of having a “mailbox” on my desk, I had placed my hopes and dreams in receiving cards and gifts from “significant others,” and “Love, Dad” just didn’t seem quite enough. 5

17 If my father knew then that he had been replaced, he never let it show. If he sensed any disappointment over valentines that didn’t arrive for me, he just tried that much harder to create a positive atmosphere, giving me an extra hug and doing what he could to make my day a little brighter. My mailbox eventually had a rural address, and the job of hand-delivering candy and cards was relegated to the U.S. Postal Service. Never in ten years was my father’s package late nor was it on the Valentine’s Day eight years ago when I reached into the mailbox to find a card addressed to me in my mother’s handwriting. Detailed reading6-7 Detailed reading 6 7

18 It was the kind of card that comes in an inexpensive assortment box sold by a child going door to door to try to earn money for a school project. It was the kind of card you used to get from a grandmother or an aging aunt or, in this case, a dying father. It was the kind of card that put a lump in your throat and tears in your eyes because you knew the person no longer was able to go out and buy a real valentine. It was a card that signaled this would be the last you would receive from him. The card had a photograph of tulips on the outside, and on the inside my mother had printed “Happy Valentine’s Day.” Beneath it, scrawled in barely legible handwriting was “Love, Dad.” Detailed reading8-10 Detailed reading

19 His final card remains on my bulletin board today. It’s a reminder of how special fathers can be and how important it has been to me over the years to know that I had a father who continued a tradition of love with a generosity of spirit, simple acts of understanding and an ability to express happiness over the people in his life. Those things never die, nor does the memory of a man who never stopped being my valentine. Detailed reading11-12 Detailed reading 11 12

20 time: v. arrange or set the time at which something happens or is to happen Detailed reading—time1 e.g. You timed your arrival well; we were just going to have dinner. Detailed reading Collocations: be timed to do sth. be timed for sth. e.g.The train is timed to arrive at 6 o’clock. e.g.The next show is timed for 8 o’clock.

21 Detailed reading—time2 Detailed reading Comparisons:ill-timed, well-timed, mistime ill-timed: adj. happening or done at the wrong time well-timed: adj. happening or done at the most suitable time mistime: v. do something at the wrong time or at an unsuitable time

22 Detailed reading—elaborate Detailed reading elaborate: adj. containing a lot of small details or parts that are connected with each other in a complicated way e.g. She made elaborate preparations for the party. The curtains had an elaborate pattern of flowers. Collocation:elaborate plan/notes/excuses, etc. Derivations: elaborate: v. elaborateness: n. Translation: The problem is too elaborate. 这个问题太复杂了。

23 fondly: adv. 1)in a way that shows you like someone very much 2) in a foolishly hopeful manner Detailed reading–fondly e.g. She greeted her old friend fondly. Comparison: lovely: adj. beautiful or attractive; friendly and pleasant Derivations: fond: adj. fondness: n. Detailed reading e.g. She fondly imagined that she could pass her examination without working hard.

24 The traditional holidays in our house when I was a child were spent timing elaborate meals around football games. ( Paragraph 1) Detailed reading—S_ The traditional holidays… Translation: 小时候,我们家的传统节日总是根据足球比赛的时间来准 备精美的饭菜。 Explanation: Some of the traditional holidays in the United States are Valentine’s Day (February 14); St. Patrick’ Day (March 17); and Halloween (October 31). In some states, Arbor Day, Bird Day, and Flag Day are school holidays. Child Health Day (the first Monday in October) is widely observed in schools. Many schools and some businesses close on Good Friday. Detailed reading

25 Questions 1)What was the narrator’s father? And what was his hobby? Detailed reading2— Question The narrator’s father did office work. He was fond of watching football matches. Detailed reading 2)Why did the narrator think of her father as her Valentine Man? Because her father chose Valentine’s Day to show his profound affection for her by presenting her with gifts and showing great care for her on that particular day for many years in succession until he passed away. Paragraph 2

26 Question What does “the magic” mentioned in Paragraph 3 refer to? Detailed reading3--Question “The magic” mentioned in Paragraph 3 refers to charm added to the day by the wonderful gifts and the profound affection that the narrator’s father gave her. Detailed reading Paragraph 3

27 Detailed reading– recollection Detailed reading recollection: n. memory; the power or action of remembering the past; something in one’s memory of the past e.g. I have no recollection of meeting him. Comparison:recollection, collection Derivation: recollect: v. collection: n. a group of things that are put together Practice: A of empty wine bottles stood on the back porch. Her of the events is rather patchy. 1) 2) collection_________ recollection __________

28 succession: n. happening one after another Detailed reading– succession Detailed reading Collocations: in succession a succession of e.g.She won the championship four times in succession. e.g.A succession of visitors came to the door. Comparisons: succession to the throne, accession to the throne succession to the throne: the act of becoming the next king or queen accession to the throne: the act of becoming king or queen

29 Detailed reading– contest Detailed reading contest: n. a struggle to win control or power; a competition, esp. one judged by a group of specially chosen judges e.g. Many beautiful girls from the five continents participated in the Beauty Contest. Comparison: Derivations: contestant: n. someone who competes in a contest contest: v. match: n. an organized sports event between two teams or people

30 cute: adj. 1) attractive in an amusing or interesting way Detailed reading– cute e.g. What a cute little baby! Detailed reading 2) (sometimes derog.) (too) clever; shrewd e.g. You must approach her carefully, for she is a cute woman. Synonyms: lovely, pleasant Derivation: cuteness: n.

31 Detailed reading– surpass1 Detailed reading e.g. China wants to catch up with and surpass the developed countries in the world. surpass: v. exceed; go beyond in amount, degree, or quality Collocation: e.g. Her splendid performances surpassed all our expectations. surpass expectations/hopes/dreams: be better than you had expected, hoped, etc. Derivation: surpassing: adj. much better than that of other people or things

32 Detailed reading– surpass2 Detailed reading Translation: He surpassed all his rivals. 他比所有的对手都强。

33 Question What gifts did the narrator’s father give her as she grew older? Detailed reading5-Question As she grew older, the narrator’s father gave her such gifts as heart-shaped boxes filled with her favorite chocolates, which always included a special card signed “Love, Dad.” Detailed reading Paragraph 5

34 give way 1) have its place taken by Detailed reading—give way e.g. Steam trains gave way to electric trains. Detailed reading 2) agree to do what someone else wants to do, instead of what you wanted to do e.g.He is too stubborn to give way. Comparisons:give away, give in e.g. They argued back and forth until finally Buzz gave in. give in: unwillingly agree to someone’s demands after they have spent a lot of time arguing with you, trying to persuade you

35 Detailed reading– perfunctory Detailed reading Antonym: discreet: adj. done or said in a careful way perfunctory: adj. (of an action) done hastily and without thought, interest or care e.g. Olivia dismissed him with a perfunctory nod. Derivation: perfunctory: n. someone who is perfunctory

36 That box and its contents ushered in a succession of bittersweet memories of my entrance into a world of popularity contests marked by the number of cards received, the teasing about boyfriends/girlfriends and the tender care I gave to the card from the cutest boy in class. (Paragraph 3) Detailed reading—S_ That box and its … Translation: 那只箱子以及其中的贺卡礼物勾起了我一连串苦乐交 织的回忆:(六岁起,)我开始加入一场场展示受欢 迎程度的角逐,最终结果取决于收到贺卡的数量、有 关男女朋友的揶揄,以及我给予班中最可爱的男生所 赠贺卡的关爱程度。 Detailed reading

37 As I grew older, the gifts gave way to heart-shaped boxes filled with my favorite chocolates and always included a special card signed “Love, Dad. ” (Paragraph 5) Detailed reading—S_ As I grew older… Translation: 长大后,我收到的礼物变成了心形的盒子。里面装满 了我最喜欢的巧克力,还随附一张很特别的卡片,上 面写着 “ 我的心肝,爱你的爸爸 ” 。 Explanation: The affectionate message might be carried by a heart-shaped box of chocolate candies, or by a bouquet of tulips tied with filmy red ribbon. Detailed reading

38 He never let it show. (Paragraph 6) Detailed reading—S_ He never … Paraphrase: He never revealed his feelings. Detailed reading

39 Detailed reading-Activity Detailed reading Activity: Making sentences Directions: Use the following words and expressions to make sentences. elaborate cute fondly recollection succession surpass give way

40 Question Why was the job of hand-delivering candy and cards relegated to the U.S. Postal Service? Detailed reading—7 Question Because the narrator settled down in a rural area, which was far away from where her father lived. Detailed reading Paragraph 7

41 eventually: adv. at last; in the end Detailed reading-- eventually e.g. After many attempts she eventually managed to get promotion. Detailed reading Comparison: eventfully: adv. in a way that is full of interesting or important events Derivations: eventual: adj. eventuality: n. a possible event or result, esp. an unpleasant one

42 deliver: v. take goods, letters, etc. to people’s houses or places of work Detailed reading--deliver e.g. Letters are delivered every day. Detailed reading Derivations: deliverer: n. someone who takes goods, letters, etc. to people’s houses or places of work delivery: n. the act of bringing goods, letters, etc. to the person or place they have been sent to Collocation:deliver sth. to e.g. Could you deliver this letter to the accounts department?

43 relegate: v. put into a lower or worse place Detailed reading--relegate e.g. He was relegated to a remote place to do farm work. Detailed reading Derivation: relegation: n. Comparison: delegate: v. give part of your power or work to someone in a lower position Practice: A good manager knows when to. Their football team was. 1) 2) delegate ________ relegated _________

44 assortment: n. a mixture of different things or of various kinds of the same thing Detailed reading-- assortment e.g. She has an odd assortment of friends. This is an assortment of sweets. Detailed reading Synonym: collection: n. a group of things that are put together Derivation: assorted: adj. of various different kinds

45 scrawl: v. write in a careless, hurried, awkward, or unskillful way Detailed reading--scrawl e.g. She scrawled a brief note and handed it to her secretary. Detailed reading Synonym: scribble: v. write something quickly and untidily Derivation: scrawl: n. something written in an untidy careless way Practice: Don’t on the wall. I his phone number in my address book. 1) 2) scrawl ______ scribbled ________

46 legible: adj. (of handwriting or print) that can be read, esp. easily Detailed reading--legible e.g. Her handwriting was tiny and barely legible. Detailed reading Antonym: illegible Derivation: legibility: n.

47 Never in ten years was my father’s package late nor was it on the Valentine’s Day eight years ago when I reached into the mailbox to find a card addressed to me in my mother’s handwriting. (Paragraph 7) Detailed reading—S_ Never in ten … Translation: 10 年中,我父亲的包裹总是准时寄到,即使在 8 年前的 情人节,也是如此。那天,我把手伸进邮箱,拿到的 是一张寄给我的卡片,上面是我母亲的笔记。 Detailed reading

48 It was the kind of card that put a lump in your throat and teas in your eyes because you knew the person no longer was to go out and buy a real valentine. (Paragraph 9) Detailed reading—S_ It was the kind of… Translation: 这是张能让人喉咙哽咽、泪水盈眶的贺卡,因为当你 看到它时,你明白这个人再也无法出门给你买情人节 贺卡了。 Detailed reading

49 Question How did the writer describe the final card she received from her dying father? Detailed reading-8-10 Question It was an ordinary-looking card, but full of her dying father's year-long affection for her which could move the author into tears. Detailed reading Paragraphs 8-10

50 Questions 1) Why does her father’s final card still remain on her bulletin board today? Detailed reading—11-12 Question It’s a reminder of her father, being special and important for her years long. Detailed reading 2) Would you please paraphrase the concluding part? It is something that makes me remember how particularly great fathers can be and how valuable and influential it has been to me over the years to have such a loving father. Those things will always live in my heart, and the same is true of the memory with my father on Valentine’s Day. Paragraphs 11-12

51 reminder: n. something that reminds you of something that happened in the past Detailed reading-reminder Detailed reading Collocation: reminder of sth. e.g. Her disability remains as a perpetual reminder of the war years. Comparison: remembrance: n. a memory that you have of a person or event Derivation: remind: v.

52 generosity: n. willingness to give money, time, etc. in order to help or please someone Detailed reading-generosity 1 Detailed reading Antonym: miserliness Derivation: generous: adj. e.g. People admire him for his diligence, friendliness, and generosity.

53 Detailed reading- generosity2 Detailed reading Translation: His generosity claims our respect. 他的慷慨值得我们尊敬。 以德服人 convince by kindness or generosity

54 Detailed reading-Activity Detailed reading Activity: Write a love story Directions: Work in groups of three or four. Write a love story of no more than 500 words, which is supposed to happen on Valentine’s Day. You should use the following words and expressions in your story. elaborate fondly recollection succession cute surpass give way perfunctory eventually deliver scrawl legible reminder generosity

55 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Phrase practice Word comparison Synonym / Antonym Sentence rephrasing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

56 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 1 think of as = regard as 认为,把 …… 当作 e.g. Crying is always thought of as the nature of women. 人们总认为哭是女人的天性。 You can’t think of him as a friend but a business associate. 你不能把他当做朋友,他只是你的生意伙伴。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

57 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 2 usher in = be the beginning of 引进,开创 e.g. The manager ushered in a series of reform. 经理开创了一系列的改革。 The change of the president ushers in new ideas and policies. 新总统的上台带来了新的理念和政策。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

58 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 3 more of = to a greater degree 更 e.g. Piracy is becoming more and more of a problem in China. 隐私在中国已日益成为一个问题。 He is more of an athlete than his brother. 他比他兄弟更适合当运动员。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

59 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1.1 careful: if you are careful, you give serious attention to what you are doing, in order to avoid harm, damage, or mistakes e.g.We had to be very careful not to be seen. elaborate: containing a lot of careful details or many detailed parts e.g. They are making the most elaborate preparations for the wedding. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 1

60 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1.2 conscious: if you are conscious of something, you notice it or realize that it is happening e.g. I had to make a conscious effort not to be rude to him. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening conscientious: careful to do everything that it is your job or duty to do e.g. A conscientious teacher may feel inclined to take work home. Grammar Group 1

61 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2.1 create: when someone creates a new product or process, they invent it or design it e.g. It is really great for a radio producer to create a show like this. produce: to bring something or bring something into existence e.g. France produces a great deal of wine for export. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 2

62 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2.2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening make: to cause an object to exist, for example, by putting the different parts of it together e.g. I’m going to show you how to make a box. Grammar invent: if you invent something such as a machine or process, you are the first person to think of it or make it e.g. He invented the first electric clock. Group 2

63 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3.1 eventually: in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc. e.g. Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a shock when she eventually died. lastly: used when telling someone the last thing at the end of a list or a series of statements e.g. Lastly, could I ask all of you to keep this information secret? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 3

64 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3.2 at last: finally e.g. I’ve finished my essay at last. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening finally: you use “finally” to suggest that something happens after a long period of time, usually later than you wanted or expected it to happen e.g. Finally, after ten hours of negotiations, the gunman gave himself up. Grammar Group 3

65 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4.1 usher: to help someone to get from one place to another, especially by showing them the way e.g. He ushered her into the room. guide: if you guide someone around a city, museum, or building, you show it to them and explain points of interest e.g.There will be guided walks around the site. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

66 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4.2 introduce: to put something into use, operation or a place for the first time e.g. The smaller 10 pence coin was introduced in display: to show something to people, or put it in a place where people can see it easily e.g. All the exam results will be displayed on the notice board. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

67 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5.1 aging: someone or something that is aging is becoming older and less healthy or efficient e.g.John lives with his aging mother. old: used to describe or ask about someone’s age e.g.He’s a couple of years older than me. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5

68 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5.2 aged: very old e.g.She nurses her aged mother. elderly: you use “elderly” as a polite way of saying that someone is old e.g.Many of those most affected are elderly. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5

69 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6.1 continue: to keep happening, existing or doing something, or to cause something to so this e.g. It’s said that the boat went down, but the band continued to play. remaining: the remaining people or things are those that are left when the others have gone, or been dealt with e.g.The few remaining guests were in the kitchen. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 6

70 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6.2 persist: if something undesirable persists, it continues to exist e.g.These problems persisted for much of the decade. maintain: to continue to have; to keep in existence, or not allow to become less e.g. The army has been brought in to maintain order in the region. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 6

71 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7.1 deliver: to take goods, letters, parcels, etc. to people’s houses or places of work e.g. Mail is delivered to our office twice a day. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening address: if a letter, envelope, or parcel is addressed to you, your name and address have been written on it e.g. Applications should be addressed to: The business affairs editor. Grammar Group 7

72 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7.2 signal: to show that you intend or are ready to do something e.g.The union has signaled that the workers will strike. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening send: to arrange for something to go or be taken to another place, especially by post e.g.Lyn sent some pictures from the wedding. Grammar Group 7

73 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8.1 caution: the quality of being very carefully to avoid danger or risks e.g. We urged caution. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening reminder: a person or thing which makes you remember a particular person, event or situation e.g. This has been a timely reminder of the need for constant care. Grammar Group 8

74 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8.2 remainder: the remainder of a group are the things or people that still remain after the other things or people have gone or have been dealt with e.g. Nine people came in and the remainder stayed outside. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening notice: information or a warning given about something that is going to happen in the future e.g. The next time you visit, can you give me more notice? Grammar Group 8

75 unpleasant, displeasing, disagreeable, bitter, nasty Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 Give synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used. 1.The traditional holidays in our house when I was a child were spent timing elaborate meals around football games. Synonyms: rich, well-prepared, complicated, complex 2. My father tried to make pleasant chitchat and eat as much as he could during half time. Antonyms: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

76 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 3. I don’t know whether it was because work at the office slowed during February or because the football season was over. Synonyms:slacken, decelerate 4. Over the years I fondly thought of him as my “Valentine Man.” Antonyms: coldly, bitterly, hatefully, spitefully VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

77 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 5. … the tender care I gave to the card from the cutest boy in class. Synonyms:lovely, lovable, attractive 6. I remember wearing that ring with a pride that all the cards in the world could not surpass. Antonyms: shame, disgrace, humiliation VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

78 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 7. In those years my thank-yous became more of a perfunctory response. Synonyms:indifferent, half-hearted, thoughtless 8. I had a father who continued a tradition of love with a generosity of spirit. Antonyms:selfishness, greediness, meanness VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

79 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 1. We must have your answer tonight at the latest. (insist) We insist on having your answer tonight at the latest. 2. My father is going to lend me his car tonight. (borrow) My father is gong to let me borrow his car tonight.

80 4. You don’t mean to say you want a fifth ice cream, do you? (surely) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. 3. We see it as a wonderful opportunity. (look) We look upon it as a wonderful opportunity. You surely don’t want a fifth ice cream, do you?

81 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. 6. The bank now owns this block of flats. (belong) 5. There is almost nothing in the house to eat tonight. (hardly) There is hardly anything in the house to eat tonight. This block of flats now belongs to the bank.

82 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Rephrase each of the following sentences with the word given in brackets. 8. There’s no need to telephone me when you arrive. (bother) 7. Is it really advisable to freeze this sort of food? (should) Should we really freeze this sort of food? Don’t bother to telephone me when you arrive.

83 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- advocate 1.1 insist v. demand sth. should happen 坚决要求,坚持 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. They insisted that everyone should come to the meeting. insist on / upon sth. e.g. The girl insisted on checking everything herself.

84 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 2.1 borrow v. get temporarily 借,借入 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. They are poor but they never borrow money from others.

85 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 3.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar look v. perceive with attention 看 e.g. Look at the blackboard please. look upon/on = regard as e.g. We look upon it as a very promising attempt.

86 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 4.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar surely adv. certainly, definitely 稳当地,无疑地 e.g. I surely need your support and trust.

87 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 5.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar hardly adv. almost not 几乎不 e.g. The children in the family hardly watch TV.

88 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 6.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar belong to: be owned by 属于 e.g. I think the toy must belong to that girl.

89 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 7.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar should aux. will, need to 应该,将要 e.g. All kids should be taken good care of.

90 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 8.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar bother to: (usually used in the negative form) to cause inconvenience or discomfort to 费心,麻烦 …… e.g. It’s no bother to me. And I'll be glad to do it.

91 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main It + be + … + that VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Real and unreal conditionals

92 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1_1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening With real conditionals, there is a chance that the condition will be fulfilled; with unreal conditional there is no such chance. e.g. If he arrives on time, he will be able to go with us. (Real condition) If he had arrived on time, he would have been able to go with us. (Unreal condition) If I were (was) you, I would be careful. (Unreal condition).

93 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1_2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Conditional sentences have two clauses. Real conditionals: If clause: present tense Result clause: future tense If you eat too much ice cream, you’ll get sick.

94 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1_3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Unreal Conditions — present: If clause: simple past Result clause: would or could + base form of verb If I had more time, I’d do exercises everyday. If you were rich, you could buy a large house in the suburbs.

95 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1_4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Unreal Conditions — past: If clause: past perfect Result clause: would have + past participle If Ronald had stayed in school, he would have gotten a better job.

96 Consolidation Activities- Grammar _P1 Practice: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar What (happen) if I press this button? If the story hadn’t been true, the newspaper (not print) it. I (not buy) things on the installment system if I were you will happen __________ wouldn’t have printed ___________________ wouldn’t buy ____________

97 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_P2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. If he’d taken his doctor’s advice he (not die). She’ll lose weight if she (go) on a diet. If I were you, I (not believe) his story wouldn’t have died _________________ goes ____ wouldn’t believe _______________

98 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_POP1 In a real conditional, when talking about the future, the verb in the if-clause is in the present tense while that in the main clause is in the future tense. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

99 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_POP2 In an unreal conditional, we use “if + past perfect” and “would + have done” in the main clause when we talk about something in the past. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

100 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_POP3 In an unreal conditional, we use a past tense in the if- clause and “would do” in the main clause when we talk about present or future situations. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

101 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 Sentences introduced by “It is” or “It was” are often used to emphasize a specific subject or object. The introductory clause is then followed by a relative pronoun. “It + be + … + that” can be used to highlight the subject, object, adverbial of time, place, manner, cause. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

102 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 e.g. It is Jenny who spends all her money on shoes. (subject) It is shoes that Jenny spends all her money on. (object) It was in London that he met his first wife. (place) It was only when he phoned that I realized what had happened. (time) It is learning English that I find most enjoyable nowadays. (gerund action) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

103 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_ P1 Practice: Highlight the underlined parts in the following sentences using “it + be + … + that.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 1. I put them into the soil the day my first son was born. It was on the day my first son was born that I put them into the soil. 2. We reached Istanbul by train. It was by train that we reached Istanbul.

104 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_ P2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 3. He’s feeling unwell because he’s been working too hard. It is because he’s been working too hard that he’s feeling unwell. 4. The awful weather drives him crazy. It is the awful weather that drives him crazy.

105 Consolidation Activities- Grammar_ P3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 5. We get light and heat from the sun. It is from the sun that we get light and heat. 6. I understood the true state of affairs not until I had read your letter. It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.

106 Consolidation Activities- Translation 索菲亚委婉地取笑汤姆那顶新帽子,而汤姆不顾情面地 对她的卷发嘲弄了一番。 ( tease sb. about) If you tease sb. about something, you make fun of sb., esp. by making him believe sth. that is untrue, or you dig dirt about sb., or mock or joke about sb. Sophia teased Tom about his new hat mildly, but Tom teased her curly hair unmercifully. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

107 Consolidation Activities- Translation1.2 Practice : 别的男孩经常拿他的口音取笑。 每当有人对乔的体重开玩笑时。他就勃然发怒。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The other boys used to tease him about his accent. Whenever anyone teases Joe about his weight, he sees red. 我们经常取笑约翰的秃头,但他并不见怪。 We often tease John about his bald head but he takes it in good part.

108 Consolidation Activities- Translation 他痛哭不已,我设法劝他不要过度悲伤。 ( give way to) If you give way to sb. or sth., you move in order to make room for them. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar He kept crying bitterly, and I tried to persuade him not to give way to grief.

109 Consolidation Activities- Translation2.2 Practice : 当两辆汽车在路上相遇时,双方司机必须相互礼让通行。 在激烈的竞争下,市场需要往往会让位于竞争需要。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar When two cars pass each other, both drivers should politely give way to each other. In a highly competitive environment, the needs of the market usually give way to the need for competition. 暴风雨过后一定是灿烂的阳光。你的暴风雨也会过去。你的 难题终将解决。 Storms always give way to the sun. Your storm will pass. Your problem will be solved.

110 Consolidation Activities- Translation 我想当然地认为你想要看这出戏,所以给你买了一张票。 (take for granted) If you take sth. for granted, you accept without question or objection; or you use, accept, or treat it in a careless or indifferent manner. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I took it for granted that you would like to see the play, so I bought you a ticket.

111 Consolidation Activities- Translation3.2 Practice : 我们把每个人都应该有受教育的机会视为理所当然。 他意大利语说得极好,所以我就理所当然地把他当做土生 土长的意大利人。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar We take it for granted that everyone should have the chance of being educated. I took it for granted that he was a native Italian because he spoke Italian so well.

112 Consolidation Activities- Translation 当我告诉她那个消息时,不知道为什么自己喉咙哽咽起来。 (a lump in one’s throat) If there is a lump in your throat, you have a tight or uncomfortable feeling in the throat, as a reaction to an emotion. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I don’t know why telling her the news brought a lump in my throat.

113 Consolidation Activities- Translation4.2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice : 当我看到她受苦时,心里感到特别不好受。 当我听到她与病魔斗争的故事时,我的喉咙哽咽了。 I got a lump in my throat on seeing her suffer. I felt a lump in my throat on hearing her story of fighting with the illness.

114 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation Cloze

115 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills_1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

116 Dictation I believe my father is a talented man. / He is decisive and efficient in doing things. / By his own talents and efforts, / he has secured for the family a good social position / and a comparatively rich life. / People of all fields come to my house, / and from them I have gained lots of valuable social experience / and seen a lot of joys and sorrows of the world. / But at home he is a harsh parent. / He has high expectations of me. / When I am idling away my time, / I can see that it hurts him deeply. / When I am doing something great, / such as writing a book, / he is more than excited. / With such a father, / I always remind myself that I must go on and on, never give up. skills_2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

117 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills_2.1 Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate. People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______

118 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills_2.2 brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

119 Consolidation Activities- Hints1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______ Here you can use a word meaning “affectionate”.

120 Consolidation Activities- Hints2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______ the person who sends the message

121 Consolidation Activities- Hints3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______ Here you can use a word to include the all places mentioned.

122 Consolidation Activities- Hints4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______ Here you can use a preposition meaning “from”.

123 Consolidation Activities- Hints5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar People in countries as far apart as Japan, the United States, Australia and France send Valentine cards to someone they fancy on 14 February, St. Valentine’s Day. Most cards are romantic and express secret (1) messages which don’t let on who the (2) is. Senders of newspaper messages, no matter (3) they are in Britain, North America or Australia, must get a thrill (4) of their exhibitionism without (5) on who is the secret admirer hidden in the words of the advertisement. The British newspaper and sender ______ love____ whether_______ out___ letting ______ Here you can use a verb meaning “release”.

124 Consolidation Activities- Hints6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a verb meaning “incline”. brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

125 Consolidation Activities- Hints7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a preposition meaning “like”. brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

126 Consolidation Activities- Hints8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you can use a word meaning “accept as true”. brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

127 Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Which kind of bird it is? brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

128 Consolidation Activities- Hints10 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The sentence is negative, and “not at all” is a regular collocation. brigades (6) to see themselves or the desired ones (7) animals, with bears being the firm favorites. But fleas, toads, bugs and mice are well represented. In parts of the English countryside it is still (8) that a girl can tell the occupation of her future husband by noting (9) bird she sees first on 14 February. But if it’s a woodpecker, she will find no man at (10). Happy bird-watching! Happy Valentine’s Day! tend____ as__ believed ________ which _____ all__

129 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities_ main VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Giving a talk Having a discussion

130 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities_1.1 Giving a talk VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Imagine that you are the writer’s father, and now you are seriously ill, knowing that you will not have long to live. Now try to recall how you have spent all the Valentine’s Days in your life, especially how you have shown your love for your daughter on this day during various stages of her life. You may find the following outline helpful for your recounting:

131 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities_1.2 — When I was young, I was usually very busy with my office work. I could hardly find time to spend with my kids. However … — I still remember the first Valentine gift I gave to my daughter, when she was six, was a ring … — As she grew older, the small gifts were replaced by … Somehow I felt that in her heart I was replaced too … — When she moved away from home and started a life of her own, I … — Now Valentine’s Day is drawing near. This is probably the last time I will send her a card … VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

132 Consolidation Activities- For your reference_1.3 — When I was young, I was usually very busy with my office work. I could hardly find time to spend with my kids. However, I would choose Valentine’s Day to show my love for them, especially my daughter. She is so special and precious to me. I would give her some lovely gifts as a surprise. A reference for the talk: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar — I still remember the first Valentine gift I gave to my daughter, when she was six, was a ring with a small piece of red glass to represent her birthstone, a ruby. I could see how happy she was, because she always wore that ring with a pride that all the other gifts in the world could not surpass.

133 Consolidation Activities- For your reference_1.4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar — — As she grew older, the small gifts were replaced by heart-shaped boxes filled with her favorite chocolates. Somehow I felt that in her heart I was replaced too. I could see she was a little disappointed because at her age, she really hoped that the gifts were given by “significant others”. “Love, Dad” just didn’t seem quite enough. — When she moved away from home and started a life of her own, I kept sending Valentine’s cards to her. The package would come to her on time every year. I knew she had found “significant others”, but I was sure she would be happy to receive two Valentine’s gifts.

134 Consolidation Activities- For your reference_1.5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar — — Now Valentine’s Day is drawing near. This is probably the last time I will send her a card. I decide to put my words in the card, saying “Dear little girl, you are our princess. You are so important and special to me and your mother. If you need me, I will always be your “Valentine’s Man.”

135 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities_2.1 Having a discussion Discuss, in a group of four or five students, the modern tendency that many young people in China nowadays seem to be crazy about western holidays and festivals. Voice your ideas frankly, and then work out a list of the pros and cons. Let one of you present your group’s opinions on the issue to the class. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

136 Consolidation Activities- For your reference_2.2 Viewpoints for reference: VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening I think celebrating western holidays and festivals is acceptable. This is an age of cultural exchanges. We should know the western cultures. Celebrating those holidays is one way. For example, from the celebration of Christmas Day and Easter, we learn some western religions, customs or traditions. On the other hand, some western holidays are quite humanistic. Celebrations of holidays such as Mother’s Day and Thanksgiving Day, which we do not have in China, are an advocate of showing love and appreciation to the people who love and help us. Personally speaking, I am quite supportive of the two days. —

137 Consolidation Activities- For your reference_2.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening I worry about the craze. Sometimes people are so crazy about western holidays and festivals that they ignore or forget Chinese traditional festivals. Gradually, those Chinese festivals may vanish. Nowadays, a lot of young men prefer exchanging gifts at Christmas to paying a visit to relatives at Spring Festival. Many people celebrate Valentine’s Day while they totally forget in China we have the Lover Festival (The Seventh Evening of the Seventh Moon) which originated from a beautiful legend. Chinese culture is unique with a long history. What I hope is, when we show our respect for foreign cultures, we can still cherish and pass on our own ones. This is our responsibility. —

138 Consolidation Activities- Writing_ main VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Stringy sentence Practice

139 Consolidation Activities- Writing_1.1 Stringy sentences are sentences in which too many clauses are connected. Thus, they seem to be endless. They would be easier to read and understand if they were broken up into separate clauses. To avoid stringy sentences, we can use division, subordination, combination or phrases. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

140 He went to a law school and joined a law firm in Miami. We seldom saw each other anymore. [Separate the original sentence into two.] Consolidation Activities- Writing_1.2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar A. Division By division, it is to divide the original sentence into several sentences. Division is employed when the clauses in the original sentence are of equal importance. Example: Revised: Stringy: He went to a law school, and then he joined a law firm in Miami, and we seldom saw each other anymore.

141 Although she was on a diet, Miss Lambert could not resist the piece of cake that Mr. Pym offered her because she was hungry. [Change all the clauses have been changed into subordinate clauses, except for the second one.] Consolidation Activities- Writing_1.3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar B. Subordination By subordination, it is to change some clauses into subordinate clauses, if they are of less importance. Example: Miss Lambert was on a diet, and she was hungry, and Mr. Pym offered her a piece of cake, and she could not resist it. Revised: Stringy:

142 After attending classes all morning, working all afternoon, and studying at night, many students are exhausted by the weekend. [Substitute the first three clauses with participle phrases.] Consolidation Activities- Writing_1.4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar C. Phrase Phrases can be used to substitute the clauses in the original sentence. Example: Stringy: Many students attend classes all morning and they work all afternoon and then they have to study at night so they are usually exhausted by the weekend. Revised:

143 Because the rains had been heavy in the spring and the lake was filling up, my friends were thinking either about fishing in the stream or about getting out their sailboats. [Change the first two clauses into a subordinate clause, and the last one into a prepositional phrase.] D. Combination All the techniques mentioned above can be combined to revise a stringy sentence. Example: Consolidation Activities- Writing_1.5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Stringy: The rains had been heavy in the spring, and the lake was filling up, and some of my friends were thinking about fishing in the stream, and other friends were thinking about getting out their sailboats. Revised:

144 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P1.1 Practice Improve the following stringy sentences by any method or combination of methods. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 1. We must accept the facts and our enormous energy requirements, but it is also important not to forget that attempts to economize on safety provisions in such hazardous industries result in increased risks, and these increased risks may result in terrible tragedy, even in disasters whose consequences exceed national boundaries, although it is certainly true that a nuclear power station working safely, without accident, is ecologically one of the cleanest of all industrial plants.

145 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening We must accept the facts and our enormous energy requirements, but it is also important not to forget that attempts to economize on safety provisions risks. And these increased risks may result in terrible tragedy, even in disasters whose consequences exceed national boundaries. It is certainly true, however, that a nuclear power station working safely, without accident, is ecologically one of the cleanest of all industrial plants. [The original sentence is divided into three sentences.] Revised:

146 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P Whether it is deceiving yourself or deceiving others, deception requires much time and energy and because deception never really achieves anything of value, it is a great waste of your precious life and resources, but instead, you’d better put that time and energy into successfully dealing with the truth, because after all, you’ll have to deal with it eventually, and the sooner you begin the more you’ll be able to accomplish. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

147 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Whether it is deceiving yourself or deceiving others, deception requires much time and energy. And because deception never really achieves anything of value, it is a great waste of your precious life and resources. Instead, you’d better put that time and energy into successfully dealing with the truth. After all, you’ll have to deal with it eventually, and the sooner you begin, the more you’ll be able to accomplish. [The original sentence is divided into four sentences.] Revised:

148 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P Giving is more than merely offering objects and when you give, give your time, your attention, your love, compassion, consideration, patience and respect and give a part of yourself, and you will not ever lose it, because that part of you takes on greater influence and value as it touches other lives beyond your own. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

149 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P3.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Giving is more than merely offering objects. When you give, give your time, your attention, your love, compassion, consideration, patience and respect. Give a part of yourself, and you will not ever lose it. That part of you takes on greater influence and value as it touches other lives beyond your own. [The original sentence is divided into four sentences.] Revised:

150 Consolidation Activities- Writing_P4 4. Almost every high school student wants to go to college, and tension and anxiety build to a ridiculous point in college candidates, and this spoils their final year in high school. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening As almost every high school student wants to go to college, tension and anxiety build to a ridiculous point in college candidates, spoiling their final year in high school. [The first clause is changed into a subordinate clause and the last clause into a participle phrase.] Revised:

151 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ A1 Valentine’s Day You are going to hear a short passage about the origin of Valentine’s Day and how people celebrate it. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening A. Listen to Part A first, and supply the missing information. Date of observance: “Valentines”: a decorated with a box of a tied with February 14th ____________ romantic card____________hearts, flowers or birds _______________ _____ heart-shaped ___________ chocolate candies________________ bouquet of flowers ________________ red ribbon _________

152 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ A2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Messages: Be Will Signatures: anonymous Symbols: Cupid — Roman of love heart My Valentine ___________ My Sweetheart _____________ My Lover ________ you be my valentine? __________________ Guess who_________ God of Love __________ arrow _____

153 Consolidation Activities- Listening_B1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening B. Now listen to Part B, and fill in the blanks with what you hear. It is from the Christians that we about Valentine’s Day that most people have. One story is about whose name was “Valentine.” He lived. At that time the Roman Emperor Claudius any Roman soldiers for any reason whatsoever. So many Roman soldiers.Together with their girls, they came to Valentine to in a Christian way. get the stories _____________ come to believe _______ a Christian priest _______________ around 250 AD _____________ refused to allow ______________ to get married _____________ turned to Christianity __________ be married secretly _________________

154 Consolidation Activities- Listening_B2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Later Valentine was and by the Roman Emperor. One tradition says that he to his friends by and then the window of his prison. The leaves were. discovered _________ put in prison ___________ wrote notes __________ marking on leaves ________________ throwing them out ________________ shaped like a heart ________________

155 February 14th is a complicated but interesting holiday. First of all, Valentine’s Day is not a holiday from work. No one gets a day off. On Valentine’s Day people usually send romantic cards to someone they love. The cards are called valentines. They are very colorful, often decorated with hearts, flowers or birds, and have humorous or sentimental verses printed inside. The basic message of the verse is always “Be My Valentine,” “Be My Sweetheart” or “Be My Lover.” Besides cards, a valentine could also be a heart-shaped box of chocolate candies, or a bouquet of flowers tied with red ribbon. Consolidation Activities- Listening_ pop1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Valentine’s Day Part A

156 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ pop2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening But in whatever form, the message is always the same — “Will you be my valentine?” A valentine may be anonymous, or sometimes signed “Guess who.” The person receiving it has to guess who sent it. This can lead to interesting speculation. And that’s half the fun of valentines. One of the symbols of St. Valentine’s Day is the Roman God of Love, called Cupid. Cupid is often printed on the card, a winged naked infant, poised to shoot his arrow into a heart. He would shoot an arrow of love into a person’s heart to make the person fall in love immediately, maybe with the first person to come along.

157 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ pop3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Sometimes one arrow would go through two hearts, holding them together. So on February 14th not only do we have a picture of the Christian St. Valentine but we also have pictures of the non-Christian Cupid, the Roman God of Love.

158 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ pop1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening It is from the Christians that we get the stories about Valentine’s Day that most people have come to believe. One story is about a Christian priest whose name was “Valentine.” He lived around 250 AD. At that time the Roman Emperor Claudius refused to allow any Roman soldiers to get married for any reason whatsoever. So many Roman soldiers turned to Christianity. Together with their girls, they came to Valentine to be married secretly in a Christian way. Part B

159 Consolidation Activities- Listening_ pop2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Later Valentine was discovered and put in prison by the Roman Emperor. One tradition says that he wrote notes to his friends by marking on leaves and then throwing them out the window of his prison. The leaves were shaped like a heart. There are many favorite lyrics of Valentine’s Day. Here is one of them: Let me call you sweetheart, I’m in love with you. Let me hear you whisper, that you love me, too. Keep the love light shining, in your eyes so true. Let me call you sweetheart, I’m in love with you.

160 Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotes Lead-in Questions Text Questions for discussion

161 Lead-in Questions Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotes 1.Have you ever been confined by illness? What does it feel like? 2. What kind of support does a patient with incurable disease need?

162 Soon after the first chemotherapy treatment, I asked Wanda to help me clean up the studio. The desk, the bookcases, and the typewriter were deep in dust, but we finally managed to make the room spotless. I hadn’t written anyting for a long while. Now I began to write again. One of my first pieces was about a Christmas I remembered. I was seven years old, it was during the Great Depression, and we were living on a run-down farm. In times as hard as those, I didn’t think I would get any presents. A blizzard had developed on Christmas Eve, MAKE TODAY COUNT Orville E. Kelly Text1 Text IIMemorable quotes 1

163 and I had snuggled into a featherbed to keep warm, praying that I would get just a little something for Christmas. When I woke the next morning and went downstairs, I found a decorated Christmas tree in the front room, and underneath it, a pair of lace-up boots, a red fire engine, and a sack of candy. “I have seen many other snowfalls,” I wrote, “but for some reason I always remember that night when the blizzard came on Christmas Eve. Whenever I see the snow coming down and hear the wind begin to howl, I remember a dream that came true.” Text2 Text IIMemorable quotes 2

164 Text3 Text IIMemorable quotes I submitted the story to the local Burlington newspaper — the Hawk Eye — for a winter writing contest and received a first prize for it. That was my first Christmas present of the year. And others came, too. Wanda and I had only a little money, although we had been able to make ends meet with the Social Security disability payments and Veterans Administration checks we had been receiving. But Christmas 1973 turned out to be one of the warmest our family ever had, thanks to the generosity of a few friends, particularly those at the factory where Wanda had worked. We received cash, 3

165 Text4 Text IIMemorable quotes hams, turkeys, and countless boxes of candy. Wanda bought a few presents for the children. Most important, the entire family was together. The day after Christmas, I decided it was time for me to write about the struggles of a cancer patient. Before I knew that I had cancer, I had thought of it as similar to leprosy — a disease that rotted people slowly — and visibly away. Life with cancer didn’t have to be that way, and I wanted people to know this. Of course, I didn’t have all the answers, but I wanted to show that cancer could be approached with openness, and that dying people did 4

166 Text5 Text IIMemorable quotes have something to live for. Although I had read about all the money being spent on cancer research, I had heard very little about the emotional rehabilitation of cancer patients and their families. The void was obvious. No matter how the problem of cancer is handled in a family, all the members of the family are bound to be affected in some way. I spent two days writing and editing the piece. “Once,” I wrote in it, “I asked how there could be a God who would let so many terrible things happen. Now I ask myself how I can doubt the existence of God... when I 5

167 Text6 Text IIMemorable quotes hear a child’s laughter on a summer evening, or see around me the miracle of life itself. I realize this is life and I am part of it. I know there has to be a God. When I think to myself how lucky I was to have such an understanding person as my wife, Wanda, I know good things happen. When someone does a kind thing for me, I know this is all part of this miracle of living. ” “On Christmas a Burlington woman called to tell me her husband had been told recently he had lung cancer. She wanted to know if I would come to their house and talk to him. He felt he would like to just sit down and talk to someone with the same problems he had.” 6

168 Text7 Text IIMemorable quotes “The thought came to me that there should be some kind of organization of people with incurable diseases. These people could help each other, and I am going to work on this...” I sent the story to the Hawk Eye, and the editors decided to use it in the Sunday, January 6 edition. The story was carried on Page 2, along with a picture of me looking out from our back porch and another of me taking my pills. The day the story appeared, I received several telephone calls from other cancer patients, telling me how strongly they supported my idea of forming an organization. So I arranged for a gathering at the local 7 8

169 Text8 Text IIMemorable quotes Elks Club on January 25. With the help of a little publicity from the local newspaper, eighteen cancer patients and members of their families, including Wanda and me, met that night in the upstairs meeting room. One of the first things I told the group was that I didn’t think we were there to cry on one another’s shoulders. We weren’t there to find out who was the most seriously ill. We were there to share our mutual problems and to try to work them out so that we could live as close to normal lives as possible. We went around the table introducing ourselves and telling our stories as a 9

170 Text9 Text IIMemorable quotes way to break the ice. After some discussion, we decided we should try to get together once a month to talk with one another and to listen to speakers who could help us face our illnesses. Several days before the meeting, it occurred to me that if we were going to start a group, we ought to have a name. I had three suggestions: Live Each Day Fully; Live for Today; or Make Today Count. When I put the suggestions to a vote, the other seventeen hands were raised in support of my choice. The vote was for Make Today Count

171 Make Today Count (Title): We should live each day with a gentleness, a vigor, and a keenness of appreciation. Text1 –Make Today… Text IIMemorable quotes

172 chemotherapy treatment (Paragraph 1): treatment of disease with drugs that directly poison the disease organism. Chemotherapy most often refers to cancer treatment, where powerful drugs with potentially severe side effects are used to eliminate or contain the spread of tumors. Text1 –chemotherapy treatment… Text IIMemorable quotes

173 Great Depression (Paragraph 1): the worst and longest economic collapse in the history of the modern industrial world, lasting from the end of 1929 until the early 1940s. Beginning in the United States, the depression spread to most of the world’s industrial countries. The Great Depression saw rapid declines in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in unemployment. Businesses and banks closed their doors, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and many depended on charity to survive. Text1 –Great Depression … Text IIMemorable quotes

174 Christmas Eve (Paragraph 1): 24 December, the day before Christmas Day, when all preparations for Christmas are complete and when almost everyone starts a holiday of several days. It is a traditional time for parties, and many workplaces, including shops and banks, close earlier than usual. In the late evening, many people go to a church service, and children, on going to bed, traditionally hang up an old sock at the head of their bed for Santa Claus to fill with presents during the night. This role is actually played by the child’s parents. Text1 – Christmas Eve… Text IIMemorable quotes

175 Christmas tree (Paragraph 1): The Christmas tree had its origin in Germany. German immigrants took the Christmas tree to other parts of Europe and to the United States and Canada, where it soon became a popular tradition. It is now the centre of interest at most Christmas celebrations. Decorating the tree is part of the Christmas festivities. Text2–Christmas tree… Text IIMemorable quotes

176 Burlington (Paragraph 3): a city in northwestern Vermont, located on Lake Champlain Text3–Burlington … Text IIMemorable quotes

177 make ends meet (Paragraph 3): have just enough money to buy what one needs Text3- make ends meet… Text IIMemorable quotes e.g. Since Mike lost his job, we can hardly make ends meet.

178 Social Security (Paragraph 3): public programs designed to provide income and services to individuals in the event of retirement, sickness, disability, death, or unemployment Text3-Social Security … Text IIMemorable quotes

179 Veterans Administration (Paragraph 3): an independent government agency established in 1930 to administer national benefits for veterans. It was replaced by the Department of Veterans Affairs in Text3- Veterans Administration Text IIMemorable quotes

180 turkeys (Paragraph 3): A traditional midday meal (Christmas dinner) is eaten on Christmas Day. It usually includes roast turkey and Christmas pudding with mince pies, and is accompanied by wine. Roast turkey is stuffed with a bread dressing to absorb the tasty juices as it roasts. Text4-turkeys Text IIMemorable quotes

181 Most important, the entire family was together. (Paragraph 3): Christmas in the United States is a family festival. “Going home for Christmas” is a cherished custom and no distance seems too great if it enables one to join the family circle for the holiday. Parents welcome home their children and grandchildren and often open their doors to friends and strangers. Text4-Most important Text IIMemorable quotes

182 leprosy (Paragraph 4): a tropical disease that mainly affects the skin and nerves, and can cause tissue change. Leprosy ( 麻风病 ) is transmitted following close personal contact and has a long incubation period. It can now be cured if treated with a combination of drugs. Text4-leprosy Text IIMemorable quotes

183 emotional rehabilitation (Paragraph 4): helping sb. to live a healthy, useful, or active life again after they have been seriously ill Text5- emotional rehabilitation Text IIMemorable quotes

184 are bound to (Paragraph 4): are certain or extremely likely to Text5-are bound to Text IIMemorable quotes e.g. In a group as big as this, you are bound to get occasional disagreements.

185 porch (Paragraph 8): an open area with a floor and a roof, often made of wood, fixed to the side of a house on the ground floor Text7-porch Text IIMemorable quotes

186 break the ice (Paragraph 9): make people who have just met each other less nervous and more willing to talk, for example at a party or meeting Text9-break the ice Text IIMemorable quotes e.g. Sharon tried to break the ice by suggesting that we all play a game.

187 ..., it occurred to me that... (Paragraph 10):..., it suddenly came into my mind that... Text9-it occurred to me that Text IIMemorable quotes e.g. It suddenly occurred to me that we could use a computer to do the job.

188 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion1 1.What can we infer from the author’s description of a Christmas about the damaging effect of the Great Depression on American farmers? The Great Depression was devastating to American farmers and their families. Many people lacked adequate food, shelter, and clothing. Text IIMemorable quotes

189 Questions for discussion2 Afflicted by the Great Depression, his family lived in poverty. On Christmas Eve, he prayed that he would get just a little present for Christmas and his dream came true the next morning. 2. What memories of childhood come alive again whenever the author sees the snow coming down? Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

190 Questions for discussion3 3. What do we know about the author and his family life? He had served in the armed forces. He or his wife was a disabled person. They lived mainly on the money received from the government. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

191 Questions for discussion4 4. What did the author think of cancer before he knew that he had cancer? He viewed cancer with great horror. He thought of it as a very serious infectious disease in which the flesh and nerves were gradually destroyed. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

192 Questions for discussion5 5. What were the main criticisms directed against the government concerning cancer research? All the money was spent on cancer research, but insufficient attention was paid to the emotional rehabilitation of cancer patients and their families. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

193 Questions for discussion6 6. According to the author, what psychological problems may a cancer patient face? Depression and persistent anxiety. He may have low self-esteem, a sense of hopelessness about the future, and a lack of interest in people and activities once found pleasurable. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

194 Questions for discussion7 7. What was the author’s intent in writing about the struggles of a cancer patient? He wanted to instill positive attitudes in a cancer patient and hoped that the story would serve as an inspiration for all people with incurable diseases. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

195 Questions for discussion8 8. What did he suggest people with incurable diseases should do to mitigate their own problems? They should share their mutual problems, help each other and take part in community life on an equal level with others. Text IIMemorable quotes Questions for discussion

196 Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes1 Read “Red Red Rose” and analyze the rhetoric devices used in the poem. Text IIMemorable quotes Guidance: “Red Red Rose” is a love poem written to be sung. The speaker presents two similes, the first comparing his love to a rose and the second comparing his love to a melody. The speaker also uses repetition to echo his sentiments — my luve’s like in Lines 1 and 3; that’s newly and that's sweetly (pronoun, verb, and adverb combinations) in Lines 2 and 4.

197 Memorable Quotes2 Text IIMemorable quotes Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) was a British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. Robert Burns (1759–1796) was a Scottish poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. Memorable Quotes

198 Memorable Quotes3 principle: a rule or standard especially of a good behavior 1. We are all born for love, … It is the principle of existence and its only end. — Benjamin Disraeli e.g. Confucius suggested one of the principles for the conduct of life: “Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you.” Text IIMemorable quotes We are all born to love, … We live by love and for love only. Memorable Quotes

199 2. Oh my luve’s like a red, red rose, That’s newly sprung in June; Oh my luve’s like the melodie That’s sweetly played in tune. — Robert Burns Memorable Quotes4 Text IIMemorable quotes

200 The lady I love is so fresh and beautiful just like a red rose beginning to blossom in June. She is as sweet and pleasant as the melodies played properly. Memorable Quotes5 Text IIMemorable quotes in/ out of tune: to be/not be singing or playing the correct musical notes to sound good e.g. My guitar doesn’t play in tune; I would find someone to scale it.

201 Notation type here


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