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LEARNING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING COGNITIVE LEARNING A (NOTES ARE AVAILABLE TO PRINT OUT)

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING COGNITIVE LEARNING A (NOTES ARE AVAILABLE TO PRINT OUT)"— Presentation transcript:

1 LEARNING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING COGNITIVE LEARNING A (NOTES ARE AVAILABLE TO PRINT OUT)

2 Fig6_3 07_ CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 02 PHASE III: After conditioning has occurred PHASE I: Before conditioning has occurred PHASE II: The process of conditioning Neutral stimulus (tone) Orienting response UCR (salivation) followed by UCS (meat powder) Neutral stimulus (tone) CS (tone) UCS (meat powder) CR (salivation) UCR (salivation) DELAYED CONDITIONING.5 SECONDS

3 Fig6_4 07_03 Strength of CR Acquisition Trials ExtinctionSpontaneous recovery Time delay Trials Extinction if UCS again withheld SALIENCY OF REINFORCERS

4 InRev6a InRev5bInRev5aInRev4bInRev2a BASIC PROCESSES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) are paired. The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS), eliciting a conditioned response (CR). A conditioned response is elicited not only by the conditioned stimulus but also by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus. Generalization is limited so that some stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response. The conditioned stimulus is presented alone, without the unconditioned stimulus. Eventually the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response. Process Acquisition Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Extinction A child learns to fear (conditioned response) the doctor’s office (conditioned stimulus) by associating it with the reflexive emotional reaction (unconditioned response), to a painful injection (unconditioned stimulus). A child fears most doctors’ offices and places that smell like them. A child learns that his mother’s doctor’s office is not associated with the unconditioned stimulus. A child visits the doctor’s office several times for a checkup, but does not receive a shot. Fear may eventually cease. DescriptionExample

5 Fig6_8

6 Fig6_10 07_12 Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus Your hand is burned. Frequency of behavior decreases You no longer touch hot irons. Behavior You touch a hot iron. PUNISHMENT Frequency of behavior decreases You're not as careless with the next cone. Behavior You're careless with your ice cream cone. OMISSION Removal of a pleasant stimulus The ice cream falls on the ground.

7 InRev6b InRev6aInRev5bInRev5aInRev4bInRev2a REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT Increasing the frequency of behavior by following it with the presentation of a positive reinforcer—a pleasant, positive stimulus or experience. Increasing the frequency of behavior by following it with the removal of a negative reinforcer—an unpleasant stimulus or experience. Learning to make a response that ends a negative reinforcer. Learning to make a response that avoids a negative reinforcer. Decreasing the frequency of behavior by either presenting an unpleasant stimulus or removing a pleasant one. Concept Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Escape conditioning Avoidance conditioning Punishment Saying “Good job” after someone works hard to perform a task. Pressing the “mute” button on a TV remote control removes the sound of an obnoxious commercial. A little boy learns that crying will cut short the time that he must stay in his room. You slow your car to the speed limit when you spot a police car, thus avoiding arrest and reducing the fear of arrest. Very resistant to extinction. Swatting the dog after she steals food from the table, or taking a favorite toy away from a child who misbehaves. A number of cautions should be kept in mind before using punishment. DescriptionExample or Comment

8 Fig6_ Time in minutes Number of responses Variable ratio Fixed interval Fixed ratio Variable interval SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT

9 Fig73 Average errors in the maze Days No reward Regularly rewarded No reward until day LATENT LEARNING


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