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Chapter 6 Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Learning Learning – A lasting change in behavior or mental processes that results from experience (Habituation)

3 Learning Mere exposure effect Behavioral learning – (e.g. classical and operant conditioning)

4 Pavlov’s Dogs “Real” founder of Behaviorism “Real” founder of Behaviorism Russian physiologist & Nobel Prize Winner Russian physiologist & Nobel Prize Winner

5 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned response (CR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) The stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response

6 Examples of Unconditioned Stimuli foodsalivation foodsalivation loud noise startle loud noise startle light in eye pupil contraction light in eye pupil contraction puff of air in eye blink puff of air in eye blink touching hot stove hand withdrawal touching hot stove hand withdrawal

7 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned response (CR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) The response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning

8 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned response (CR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) A previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response

9 The Essentials of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned response (CR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) A response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus

10 Classical Conditioning Prior to conditioning Conditioning After conditioning Neutral stimulus (tone) (Orientation to sound but no response) UCS (food powder in mouth) UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus CS (tone) UCS (food powder) + CR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)

11 Learning to Fear Research suggests we can learn fear through association. Research suggests we can learn fear through association. Watson and Raynor conditioned “Little Albert” to be afraid of white rats Watson and Raynor conditioned “Little Albert” to be afraid of white rats Within days, Albert’s fear had generalized to other furry objects. Within days, Albert’s fear had generalized to other furry objects.

12 Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery

13 Conditioned Taste Aversions Taste-aversion learning – Biological tendency where an organism learns to avoid food One trial learning*

14 Trial-and-error learning – Learner gradually discovers the correct response by attempting many behaviors How Do We Learn Behaviors by Operant Conditioning?

15 Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

16 Thorndike’s law of effect The consequence, or effect, of a response will determine the tendency to respond in the same way in the future (strengthened or weakened). The consequence, or effect, of a response will determine the tendency to respond in the same way in the future (strengthened or weakened). Satisfying vs. Unsatisfying consequences Satisfying vs. Unsatisfying consequences (No consequences)

17 Thorndike builds a Foundation Thorndike (1898) insisted that it was “unnecessary to invoke reasoning” to explain how the learning took place. Thorndike (1898) insisted that it was “unnecessary to invoke reasoning” to explain how the learning took place. Thorndike’s law of effect formed the conceptual starting point for Skinner’s work in operant conditioning. Thorndike’s law of effect formed the conceptual starting point for Skinner’s work in operant conditioning.

18 The Skinner Box

19 The Power of Reinforcement Positive reinforcers – Stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of that response happening again Negative reinforcers – Removal of an unpleasant stimulus

20 The Problem of Punishment Punishment – An aversive stimulus which decreases the probability of the response it follows How does this differ from negative reinforcement?

21 Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement Loud NoisePress Lever Loud Noise Removed Loud Noise Applied Response Consequence Negative Reinforcement Punishment No Noise

22 Four Kinds of Consequences Positive Stimulus (Add) Negative Stimulus (Subtract) Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Positive Reinforcement Bonus for working hard leads to more hard work Negative Reinforcement Headache gone after aspirin leads to more aspirin use Positive Punishment Getting speeding ticket leads to less speeding Negative Punishment No Television leads to less staying out late

23 When Punishment Fails Teaches poor behavior not good behavior Teaches poor behavior not good behavior Recipient responds with negative emotion (anxiety, fear, rage, distrust). Recipient responds with negative emotion (anxiety, fear, rage, distrust). The effectiveness is often temporary. The effectiveness is often temporary. Punishment conveys little information. Punishment conveys little information. An action intended to punish may instead be reinforcing. An action intended to punish may instead be reinforcing. More effective if* (Swift, Consistent, Sufficient, with explanation) More effective if* (Swift, Consistent, Sufficient, with explanation)

24 Alternatives to Punishment Extinction Extinction Reinforcing preferred activities Reinforcing preferred activities Premack principle Premack principle Prompting and shaping

25 Final Comments-Shaping Behavior

26 Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio schedules – Provide reward after a certain number of responses Interval schedules – Provide reward after a certain time interval Fixed Ratio (FR) Fixed Interval (FI) Variable Ratio (VR) Variable Interval (VI)

27 Benefits of Partial Reinforcement

28 Social Learning: Challenge to Behaviorism Social learning – Form of cognitive learning where new responses are acquired by watching (and the consequences) (Albert Bandura)

29 Adult Model

30 Children’s Behavior

31 Kids Who Watch Lots of TV: Have higher petty delinquency Have higher petty delinquency More likely to be in serious fights/or to hurt someone badly More likely to be in serious fights/or to hurt someone badly Conflicts with parents that include fighting Conflicts with parents that include fighting Perceive aggression to be effective and are more willing to use physical force Perceive aggression to be effective and are more willing to use physical force

32 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement Intrinsic reinforcement is reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behavior. Intrinsic reinforcement is reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behavior. Extrinsic reinforcement is reinforcement provided by some consequence that is external to the behavior. Extrinsic reinforcement is reinforcement provided by some consequence that is external to the behavior. External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers** External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers**

33 Are Rewards always reinforcing? Overjustification effect – The process by which extrinsic rewards can sometimes displace internal motivation - informative value vs. random consequence


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